4 months ago

Newspaper Khebrat Wave2 Oakland 2018

Galileo Saudi Arabia

Galileo Saudi Arabia Program Newspaper of detailed simplification of the then, however, not an equally explicit if. By : Faizah Alanazi To make lectures and reading more effective, teachers should allow students to undergo problems before they hear or read the answers. Reading and lectures are more beneficial when they deal with problem students have experienced. When students understand the details of the problem, they figure out expository information more accurately. Moreover, they can use it to discover further information efficiently. You likely remember attending a lecture in physic, mathematic or any scientific subject. The lecture gradually attenuated into a steam of obscure topics. Even though it is one of the remarkable development of its generation. Therefore, why was it in the lecture? How is it potential that the most significant nation can fade into a muddle of words? Such lecture could be bad that continues too long and pour out a lot of information. Dividing lecture and giving opportunities for cooperation can assist students to comprehend that problem. However, it perhaps was not all the lecture’s defect. You merely may not have been poised to recognize why the information that was given in the lecture is unimportant. You had never faced the problem that the distinguished ideas solved. Experiencing the problem first can assist students understanding the goal of told knowledge. For instance, after facing the problem, students will enable to illustrate the aim of an equation or a part of an equation (eg, why divide by m). Moreover, students will not be saying that “because that is the way we are supposed to do it”. They will be able to explain, “why is [X] significant?” and to response what if questions. Secondary, by using this effective learning process, students will use the knowledge in their life. According to Alfred Whitehead, a math and philosopher, invented the phrase” inert knowledge”. Students can have considerable memory of theoretical knowledge; however, they may not use it because it is inert. For example, some of earlycareer clinician could not identify the nature of an illness for patients on the floor, but they were able to explain all the illness they had been taught. Indeed, a lecture should not give students direct information. Instead, teacher can put students in a problem related to the lesson that she/he wants them to learn and ask them to think about solution. By this way students can learn more effectively than direct information given directly. Effective learning has two components: an if and then. The if contains conditions that take the action” you need to find density”. The then is the response or action “you divide volume by mass to find density”. Regrettably, the majority of lectures and illustrative writings explain a lot 33

cancer, cardiovascular disease, sickle cell anemia, or even high cholesterol. Crispr-cas9 for humanembryos can bring about positive changes to the still-born in the form of 20/20 vision, perfect pitch, strong durable bony structures, and other changes such as a specific eye color, height, or skin complexion. By Amnh Alasker Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, or better known as Crispr is sure a mouthful, yet it carries implications that could potentially revolutionize the way we treat people with genetic diseases such as Huntington’s disease or cystic fibrosis, and applications that could never come to fruition due to their hefty ethical backdrops such as human-embryo modification and cosmesis. For decades, the Crispr system for genetic engineering has been at the for front of medical and biochemical research. It is only when Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier, two scientists out of the University of California and Umea University, Sweden respectively, discovered a new way to use Crispr. The buzz created around this was because both scientists were able to construct the simplest, cheapest, most versatile, and the most accurate tool for genetic manipulation compared to other previously described techniques. So how does Crispr work? Crispr utilizes two key components to bring about change or mutation into a person’s DNA. The first, an enzyme called Cas9. This acts as a pair of ‘molecular scissors’ that can cut the two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed. The second component, a piece of RNA called guide RNA (gRNA), an RNA sequence is essentially DNA’s cousin. The gRNA makes sure that Cas9 cuts the specific genomic segments in target. It is for this reason Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier rendition of the Crispr system is the most accurate to date. The applications and implications of the Crisprcas9 system are extremely promising. Crispr-cas9 has the potential to treat a long range of medical conditions that have a genetic component such as Such a massive discovery does not go without its fair share of critics, especially in the ethical side of things. Many of the proposed applications involve editing the genomes of somatic (nonreproductive) cells but there has been a lot of interest in and debate about the potential to edit germline (reproductive) cells. Already in 1997 UNESCO issued the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights recommending a global conversation for modifying human germlines. In December 2015, the International Summit on Human Gene Editing, which gather members of national scientific academies of America, Britain, and China, discussed the ethics of germline modification. They agreed to proceed further with basic and clinical research under appropriate legal and ethical guidelines, but altering of gametocytes and embryos to generate inheritable changes in humans was claimed irresponsible. What if such technology would be at the hands of a fascist regime? or a terrorist organization? The consequences would be dire. They could potentially breed ‘super humans’ capable of withstanding the toughest physical injuries. Using such creations for terror and terror alone. Another Issue would be the use of Crispr-cas9 for nontherapeutic interventions solely for personal enhancement, the cost of such genomic modification, and the creation of animal chimeras with human germline cells all have played a role in delayed world-wide use of the Crispr technology. (Rodriguez E. Ethical Issues in Genome Editing using Crispr/Cas9 System. Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics. 2016) (Jennifer Doudna. How CRISPR lets us edit our DNA. TED talk.) (Ellen Jorgensen. What you need to know about CRISPR. TED talk). 34

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