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WHO ARE THE HUNS?

WHO ARE THE HUNS?

178 CHAPTER XV. "Private

178 CHAPTER XV. "Private Property in War" According to German and International Interpretations. I. Our government has protested in the most energetic manner against the incendiarism, robberies and murderous deeds of the Russians, who in their invasion of our borders, rode rough-shod over unprotected villages and farms and totally destroyed them. Such proceedings in a war between civilized nations are, as already made clear in another chapter, absolutely unheard of. For the most important basis of the Law of Nations, the principle which is recognized by all civilized nations of to-day, is this,—that States, and not private persons, wage war upon one another. All wanton damage done the country, all destruction of private property, all curtailment of the natural rights of the natives and their possessions, not rendered absolutely necessary by the needs of war, is an infraction of international law. (See Articles i, 46, 47, 53, 55.) The soldiers of the hostile forces are even required, by the laws of war, (Article 23) to protect the persons as well as the possessions of the inhabitants of the country which they have invaded. The book issued by the German General Staff upon "Customs of War in Land Warfare," expressly emphasizes these points, and adds that it is nevertheless true that wars against savages and barbarians "have not been successfully waged in our day through the application of humanitarian and protective measures, and that one is unable to proceed against such enemies without destroying their crops, driving away their herds, seizing hostages and similar measures." Our troops in this war have behaved according to the same principles as those in use in the war of 1870, in so far as the necessities of war permitted. They have in fact, neither destroyed hostile property, nor plundered, nor seized it, except in cases where this destruction or seizure was rendered inexorably necessary by the demands of war. It is of course understood by international law that even the most extensive disturbance, limitation and even imperilment of private pro-

Private Property in War. 179 perty, is permitted when this is, for military reasons, unavoidable. It is often necessary, for example, for troops to •cause a certain amount of unavoidable damage to the country. The carrying-on of war requires the razing of many houses or other buildings, the destruction of bridges, railways and telegraph stations. The inhabitant is obliged to endure these things, and also the possible requisition of his house and possessions for the .shelter and care of troops or of wounded, and also, if necessary, the use of his property as an observation point, defence or fortification. But it is absolutely forbidden to commit any purposeless destruction or devastation in the hostile country, and the German soldier who transgresses in this respect is treated as an ordinary criminal. Not the slightest damage may be wantonly committed by the private soldier, but the greatest damage may be inflicted upon private property by the express command of the General Staff, as appears from the following semi-official observations in the German press: "In Louvain our soldiers, who had been betrayed in the most shameless manner, were able, despite this, to save not only the priceless Town Hall, but also to preserve all the churches and valuable architectural monuments. This was also the case in other places. Of course, where franc-tireur warfare has taken place, in violation of international law, neither persons nor property can remain immune. This also applies to cases where the inhabitants forcibly lock their doors against the invader. Bismarck once declared: "War is war. When the soldier freezes, he must warm himself, and if he is unable to find any other fuel, he must make use of mahogany furniture. One could hardly expect that the living bodies of our soldiers should be frozen to death in the open field in order that their last words to the French may be: 'We have spared your mahogany furniture'." Fortunately, the French scarcely penetrated 20 kilometres into German territory. Their conduct in Lorraine, especially in Saarburg, as well as in Upper Alsace, demonstrates in the clearest manner, the kind of deeds of which this people would have been capable towards defenceless Germans and their property, in the event of a French victory. Certain witnesses from 12*

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    • Copyright 1915 by Georg Reimer

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    IV A Foreword. most brilliant judic

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    VI A Foreword. to do. And I hold th

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    CONTENTS. PART ONE. Page: Rules and

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    PART ONE. Rules and Regulations of

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 3 in fav

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 5 "Gentl

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 7 cellor

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. •9 its

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 11 We th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 13 nothi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 15 that

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 17 Belgi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 19 Grey

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 21 but o

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 23 Omega

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 25 i "Ne

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 27 the d

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 29 "Thro

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 31 "From

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 33 which

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 35 Imper

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 37 3. Th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 39 divis

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 41 Evide

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 43 There

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 45 subst

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    Mobilization and the Morality of Na

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. "

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 6

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 75 empi

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 77' aga

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 79 to m

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 81 inte

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 87 l

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 89 5

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 91 u

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 93 a

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 95 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 97 s

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 99 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 101

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 103

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 105

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. I

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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  • Page 187 and 188: German Administration in Belgium. 1
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  • Page 193 and 194: The Conduct of German Troops. 181 t
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  • Page 199 and 200: Plundering and Destruction of Prope
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  • Page 209 and 210: Ruses of War and Official Lies. 197
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  • Page 215 and 216: The Destruction of Telegraph Cables
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    CHAPTER XXI. 229 A Few Remarks upon

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    Art and Warfare. 247 by the French

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    Art and Warfare. 249 On the 28th of

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    Art and Warfare. 251 pressly forbid

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 253 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 255 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 257 bee

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    English Business Morals. 259 Contin

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    English Business Morals. 261 means

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    English Business Morals. 263 While

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Violations of Neutral States. 269 w

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    Violations of Neutral States. 271 A

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    PART TWO. Questions of Legality in

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    Starvation as a Weapon. 281 take pl

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 283

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 285

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 287

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 289

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 291

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 293

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 295

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    The North Sea as a Zone of War. 297

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    The North Sea as a Zone of War. 299

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    American "Neutrality." 301 logical

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    American "Neutrality." 303 press (f

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    American "Neutrality." 305 of to-da

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    American "Neutrality." 307 •natio

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    American "Neutrality." 309 We are,

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    American "Neutrality." 311 its weak

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    American "Neutrality." 313 IL i. Th

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    American "Neutrality." 315. knows t

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    American "Neutrality." 317 III. In

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    American "Neutrality." 319 Prussian

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    The Americans and Ourselves. 321 pa

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    The Americans and Ourselves. 323 wi

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    The Monroe Doctrine and Neutrality.

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 327 for t

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 329 of Lo

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 331 misus

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 333 right

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 335 proce

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 337 cease

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 339, the

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 341 accre

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 343 of co

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 345 consi

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 347 "Germ

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 349 of in

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 351 IV. T

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 353 or wh

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 355 misun

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 357 VI. I

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 359

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 361

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 363

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 365

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    CHAPTER XXXI. 367 Aggravation of th

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    The Case of the ' Lusitania." 369 t

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 371 we

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 373 "T

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 375 mi

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange ôf German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 393

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 395

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 397

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    CHAPTER XXXII. A Final Political Su

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    A Final Political Survey. 401 arran

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    A Final Political Survey. 403 For t

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    A Final Political Survey. 405 This

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