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WHO ARE THE HUNS?

WHO ARE THE HUNS?

350 The "Submarine

350 The "Submarine Blockade." ference. They have set aside the entire structure of the law of nations. Their procedure in the matter of non-military vessels 1 is nothing less than direct piracy. According to Oppenheim, a Cambridge authority, "every unauthorised act of violence against persons or goods committed on the Operf Sea either by a private vessel against another vessel or by the mutinous crew or passengers against their own vessel" is to be so designated. A franc-tireur naval war of this kind (carried on by vessels which, consonant or not with the orders of the British Admiralty, have been equipped with guns and ammunition for the purposes of defence) was fittingly characterized by the order of von Pohl, the Chief of the Admiralty Staff of the German Navy on June 22nd, 1914, that is to say, before the war. And it is against this kind of warfare that the German Prize Court Law is aimed. If an armed enemy merchant vessel offers armed resistance against legitimate prize-taking measures, then this resistance is to be broken by any and every means. The responsibility for all damage done, to ship, cargo and passengers must be borne by the enemy government. The crews are to be treated as prisoners of war. 2 1 The intentional grouping of vessels for the purposes of ramming submarines as well as the offer of prizes for such acts of piracy also belong to this category. Consult chapter 38 with reference to the misuse of merchant ships. 2 The German Government behaved with perfect correctness even according to the conception of law held by the Naval War College of the United States. The "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung," No. 63, of the 3rd of March 1915, writes: "Should the Imperial Ministry of War no longer allow Germany to be injured through permitting an exception in the case of neutral ships, but should forbid these ships to pass through the war-zone, such a measure would be absolutely along the natural line of development of international law, which has not previously had to reckon with the possibilities of submarine warfare. How far such a prohibition would suit the English and American conception of law, and how the present mild form of limitation of the war zone agrees with the ideas of their legal experts, may be seen by a letter of Dr. A. Pearce Higgins in the "Times" of October 21st, 1914. His statement was designed to establish the legality of England's declaration of a war zone, and he had perhaps not reckoned with the fact that Germany would be able to appropriate

The "Submarine Blockade." 351 IV. There are various other points which might be emphasized in the interchange of notes between the United States and other neutrals and the Triple Entente. See, for instance, the interchange of letters between the Ambassador of the United States in Paris and M. Delcassé, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, page 99, of the original edition. But the very acme of the piratical measures which have been discussed in the foregoing were achieved by the states of the Triple Entente some time in March, 1915. The official organ of the French Government under the date of March 17th, published a "décret" upon the "measures of retaliation" to be undertaken by the Allies against the German trans-oceanic trade. This decree is preceded by a report directed by the French Ministers of Foreign Affairs, of Finance, of War and the Navy, to the President of the Republic. This report is supposed to furnish the reasons for the new regulations. 1 part of his arguments. These are the more interesting for us to-day, as they are grounded upon the principles of war according to the Naval War College of the United States. Nor do Dr. Pearce Higgins and the Naval War College stand alone in their opinions. The naval correspondent of the "Times"— which frequently represents the views and standpoint of the Government— comments upon Dr. Higgins' letter in the issue of November 12th, 1914, and says that the Law of Warfare therein discussed, the right to remove neutral ships which disturb or interfere with military operations, had not yet been employed by England. But the time might come, when it would be necessary." See further Dr. Higgins' letter to the "Times." 1 The announcement of the measures to be taken by England for preventing the export and the import of goods to and from Germany is, according to Reuter, introduced with the following declaration: "In consideration of the fact that the German Government has published certain conclusions, wherein in contradiction to the usages of war, the waters around Great Britain are declared as a zone of war, within the limits of which all the merchant vessels of England and its allies are to be destroyed without consideration for the lives of the passengers and the crews; in conFideration of the fact that in an explanatory memorandum to these determinations it is declared that neutrals are warned against entrusting crews, passengers and goods to the vessels of England and its allies; in consideration of the fact that such an attitude on the part of the enemy, gives his Majesty the indisputable right of retaliation—His Majesty has determined to take other measures in order to prevent all articles of commerce from either leaving or reaching Germany." (retranslation)

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    • Copyright 1915 by Georg Reimer

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    IV A Foreword. most brilliant judic

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    VI A Foreword. to do. And I hold th

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    CONTENTS. PART ONE. Page: Rules and

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    PART ONE. Rules and Regulations of

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 3 in fav

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 5 "Gentl

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 7 cellor

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. •9 its

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 11 We th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 13 nothi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 15 that

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 17 Belgi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 19 Grey

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 21 but o

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 23 Omega

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 25 i "Ne

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 27 the d

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 29 "Thro

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 31 "From

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 33 which

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 35 Imper

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 37 3. Th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 39 divis

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 41 Evide

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 43 There

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 45 subst

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    Mobilization and the Morality of Na

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. "

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 6

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 75 empi

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 77' aga

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 79 to m

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 81 inte

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 87 l

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 89 5

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 91 u

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 93 a

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 95 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 97 s

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 99 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 101

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 103

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 105

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. I

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    French Outrages. 131 to the ground

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    English Outrages. 133 Boer concentr

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    The Frenzy of France. 135 made a st

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    German Restraint and Order. 137 the

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 139 wa

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 141 An

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 143 fr

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 145 ha

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 147 I

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 149 ve

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    Slaughter of Prisoners. 151 which m

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    Compulsory Treason. 153 the Frenchm

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 155 this

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 157 serva

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 159 their

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    CHAPTER XIV. 173- The German Admini

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    Private Property in War. 179 perty,

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 181 t

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 183 c

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 185 p

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 197

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 199

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 201

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    The Destruction of Telegraph Cables

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    + Add. — Subtract The Triple Ente

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    CHAPTER XXI. 229 A Few Remarks upon

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    Art and Warfare. 247 by the French

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    Art and Warfare. 249 On the 28th of

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    Art and Warfare. 251 pressly forbid

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 253 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 255 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 257 bee

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    English Business Morals. 259 Contin

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    English Business Morals. 261 means

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    English Business Morals. 263 While

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Violations of Neutral States. 269 w

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    Violations of Neutral States. 271 A

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    PART TWO. Questions of Legality in

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    Starvation as a Weapon. 281 take pl

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 283

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 285

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 287

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 289

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 291

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 293

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 295

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    The North Sea as a Zone of War. 297

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    A Final Political Survey. 401 arran

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    A Final Political Survey. 403 For t

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    A Final Political Survey. 405 This

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