84 Choosing a Compiler Choosing a Compiler No two compilers work exactly alike, even compilers designed for the same language, such as two competing C++ compilers. It’s perfectly possible (and quite common) to write a program that works perfectly with one compiler but doesn’t run at all under another compiler without minor (or massive) changes. When Microsoft wrote the Macintosh version of their Microsoft Office suite, they used CodeWarrior, which is a C++ compiler. Unfortunately, the Code Warrior compiler ran only on the PowerPC processors, which were used in the older Macintosh computers. When Apple switched to Intel processors, Microsoft had to dump the CodeWarrior compiler and use a different compiler, Xcode. Because CodeWarrior and Xcode are both C++ compilers, Microsoft could theoretically compile the same C++ program under both CodeWarrior and Xcode with no problems. Realistically, Microsoft had to rewrite major portions of their C++ programs just to get them to run under the Xcode compiler. So the moral of the story is that switching compilers is rarely an easy decision, so it’s important to choose the “right” compiler from the start. At one time, the CodeWarrior compiler was considered the “right” compiler to use for creating Macintosh programs. What made CodeWarrior suddenly turn into the “wrong” compiler was when Apple switched from PowerPC processors to Intel processors. Everyone who had used the CodeWarrior compiler had to switch to the Xcode compiler. So what may seem like the “right” compiler at the time could later turn out to be the “wrong” compiler later through no fault of your own or the compiler company. When choosing a compiler, you have to consider your needs, the compiler company’s reputation, and the compiler’s technical features. Defining your needs for a compiler The most important choice for a compiler centers solely on what you need. Follow these steps: 1. Decide which programming language you want to use. If you want to write C++ programs, you need a C++ compiler. If you want to write BASIC programs, you need a BASIC compiler. 2. Decide which operating system you want to use. If you want to write C++ programs for the Mac OS X operating system, your choices immediately narrow down to the small list of C++ compilers that run under the Mac OS X operating system.
Choosing a Compiler 85 3. Choose a compiler that has the best chance of being around years from now. • Most companies prefer using compilers from brand-name companies, like Intel or Microsoft. Even compilers from big-name companies are no guarantee against obsolescence. Microsoft has stopped supporting their compilers over the years, such as Microsoft Pascal and Visual Basic 6. So if you used either of these compilers to write a program, you had to change compilers when Microsoft stopped developing them. • Many people are choosing “open source” compilers. Open source simply means that the source code to the compiler is available freely to anyone. Not only does this mean that open source compilers are free (compared to the hundreds of dollars you can pay for a brand-name compiler from Intel or Microsoft), but open source also guarantees that the compiler can’t become obsolete due to lack of support. Book I Chapter 4 Programming Tools If you use a compiler from a company that goes out of business, you’re forced to transfer (or port) your program to another compiler, which means having to rewrite the program to run under a different compiler. Because anyone can examine and modify the source code to an open source compiler, anyone can make changes to the compiler to improve it. One of the most popular open source compilers is GCC (http://gcc.gnu.org), which stands for GNU Compiler Collection. Xcode, the free compiler that Apple distributes with every Macintosh computer, is actually the GCC compiler. Originally, GCC only compiled C source code, but later versions of GCC now compile several different languages, including C, C++, Java, Ada, and Objective-C, with more programming languages being supported every day. Even better, the GCC compiler also runs on a variety of operating systems, such as Windows and Linux, so if you write a program using the GCC compiler, you can recompile your program to run under another operating system with minimal (hopefully) changes. The GCC compiler actually consists of two parts: ✦ The front-end of the compiler translates source code into an intermediate format. • To write C++ programs, you must use the C++ front-end of the GCC compiler. • To write Ada programs, use the Ada front-end of the GCC compiler.
Agreed in 2016, the motive of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to better protect the personal data of European Union “data subjects” – EU citizens and other nationals physically present in the EU at the time data are collected. Visit: https://www.hipaajournal.com/gdpr-training/
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was created primarily to modernize the flow of healthcare information, stipulate how Personally Identifiable Information maintained by the healthcare and healthcare insurance industries should be protected from fraud and theft, and address limitations on healthcare insurance coverage – such as portability and the coverage of individuals with pre-existing conditions.