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A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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and lorazepam. Some patients inherit a deficiency of glucuronide formation that presents clinically as a nonhaemolytic jaundice due to excess unconjugated bilirubin (Crigler–Najjar syndrome). Drugs that are normally conjugated via this pathway aggravate jaundice in such patients. O-Glucuronides formed by reaction with a hydroxyl group result in an ether glucuronide. This occurs with drugs such as paracetamol and morphine. METHYLATION Methylation proceeds by a pathway involving S-adenosyl methionine as methyl donor to drugs with free amino, hydroxyl or thiol groups. Catechol O-methyltransferase is an example of such a methylating enzyme, and is of physiological as well as pharmacological importance. It is present in the cytosol, and catalyses the transfer of a methyl group to catecholamines, inactivating noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is also important in catecholamine metabolism. It methylates the terminal – NH 2 residue of noradrenaline to form adrenaline in the adrenal medulla. It also acts on exogenous amines, including phenylethanolamine and phenylephrine. It is induced by corticosteroids, and its high activity in the adrenal medulla reflects the anatomical arrangement of the blood supply to the medulla which comes from the adrenal cortex and consequently contains very high concentrations of corticosteroids. SULPHATION Cytosolic sulphotransferase enzymes catalyse the sulphation of hydroxyl and amine groups by transferring the sulphuryl group from 3�-phosphoadenosine 5�-phosphosulphate (PAPS) to the xenobiotic. Under physiological conditions, sulphotransferases generate heparin and chondroitin sulphate. In addition, they produce ethereal sulphates from several oestrogens, androgens, from 3-hydroxycoumarin (a phase I metabolite of warfarin) and paracetamol. There are a number of sulphotransferases in the hepatocyte, with different specificities. MERCAPTURIC ACID FORMATION Mercapturic acid formation is via reaction with the cysteine residue in the tripeptide Cys-Glu-Gly, i.e. glutathione. It is very important in paracetamol overdose (Chapter 54), when the usual sulphation and glucuronidation pathways of paracetamol metabolism are overwhelmed, with resulting production of a highly toxic metabolite (N-acetyl-benzoquinone imine, NABQI). NABQI is normally detoxified by conjugation with reduced glutathione. The availability of glutathione is critical in determining the clinical outcome. Patients who have ingested large amounts of paracetamol are therefore treated ENZYME INDUCTION 27 with thiol donors such as N-acetyl cysteine or methionine to increase the endogenous supply of reduced glutathione. GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATES Naphthalene and some sulphonamides also form conjugates with glutathione. One endogenous function of glutathione conjugation is formation of a sulphidopeptide leukotriene, leukotriene (LT) C4. This is formed by conjugation of glutathione with LTA4, analogous to a phase II reaction. LTA4 is an epoxide which is synthesized from arachidonic acid by a ‘phase I’-type oxidation reaction catalysed by the 5�-lipoxygenase enzyme. LTC4, together with its dipeptide product LTD4, comprise the activity once known as ‘slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis’ (SRS-A), and these leukotrienes play a role as bronchoconstrictor mediators in anaphylaxis and in asthma (see Chapters 12 and 33). ENZYME INDUCTION Enzyme induction (Figure 5.2, Table 5.1) is a process by which enzyme activity is enhanced, usually because of increased enzyme synthesis (or, less often, reduced enzyme degradation). The increase in enzyme synthesis is often caused by xenobiotics binding to nuclear receptors (e.g. pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor), which then act as positive transcription factors for certain CYP450s. There is marked inter-individual variability in the degree of induction produced by a given agent, part of which is genetically determined. Exogenous inducing agents include not only drugs, but also halogenated insecticides (particularly dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and gamma-benzene hexachloride), herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes, food preservatives, nicotine, ethanol and hyperforin in St John’s wort. A practical consequence of enzyme induction is that, when two or more drugs are given simultaneously, then if one drug is an inducing agent it can accelerate the metabolism of the other drug and may lead to therapeutic failure (Chapter 13). (slow – 1–2 weeks) ↑ synthesis Inducer ( or ↓ degradation) of CYP450 isoenzyme(s) Figure 5.2: Enzyme induction. ↑ Metabolism (↓ t ½ ) of target drug ↓ Plasma concentration of target drug ↓ Effect of target drug

28 DRUG METABOLISM TESTS FOR INDUCTION OF DRUG- METABOLIZING ENZYMES The activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes can be assessed by measuring the clearance or metabolite ratios of probe drug substrates, e.g. midazolam for CYP3A4, dextromethorphan for CYP2D6, but this is seldom if ever indicated clinically. The 14 C-erythromycin breath test or the urinary molar ratio of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol have also been used to assess CYP3A4 activity. It is unlikely that a single probe drug study will be definitive, since the mixed function oxidase (CYP450) system is so complex that at any one time the activity of some enzymes may be increased and that of others reduced. Induction of drug metabolism represents variable expression of a constant genetic constitution. It is important in drug elimination and also in several other biological processes, including adaptation to extra-uterine life. Neonates fail to form glucuronide conjugates because of immaturity of hepatic uridyl glucuronyl transferases with clinically important consequences, e.g. grey baby syndrome with chloramphenicol (Chapter 10). ENZYME INHIBITION Allopurinol, methotrexate, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and many others, exert their therapeutic effects by enzyme inhibition (Figure 5.3). Quite apart from such direct actions, inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by a concurrently administered drug (Table 5.1) can lead to drug accumulation and toxicity. For example, cimetidine, an antagonist at the histamine H 2-receptor, also inhibits drug metabolism via the CYP450 system and potentiates the actions of unrelated CYP450 metabolized drugs, such as warfarin and theophylline (see Chapters 13, 30 and 33). Other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors include the azoles (e.g. fluconazole, voriconazole) and HIV protease inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir). The specificity of enzyme inhibition is sometimes incomplete. For example, warfarin and phenytoin compete with one another for metabolism, and co-administration results in elevation of plasma steady-state concentrations of both drugs. Metronidazole is a non-competitive inhibitor of microsomal Inhibitor Rapid Direct inhibition of CYP450 isoenzyme(s) Figure 5.3: Enzyme inhibition. ↓ Metabolism (↑ t ½) of target drug ↑ Plasma concentration of target drug ↑ Effect ↑ Toxicity of target drug enzymes and inhibits phenytoin, warfarin and sulphonylurea (e.g. glyburide) metabolism. PRESYSTEMIC METABOLISM (‘FIRST-PASS’ EFFECT) The metabolism of some drugs is markedly dependent on the route of administration. Following oral administration, drugs gain access to the systemic circulation via the portal vein, so the entire absorbed dose is exposed first to the intestinal mucosa and then to the liver, before gaining access to the rest of the body. A considerably smaller fraction of the absorbed dose goes through gut and liver in subsequent passes because of distribution to other tissues and drug elimination by other routes. If a drug is subject to a high hepatic clearance (i.e. it is rapidly metabolized by the liver), a substantial fraction will be extracted from the portal blood and metabolized before it reaches the systemic circulation. This, in combination with intestinal mucosal metabolism, is known as presystemic or ‘first-pass’ metabolism (Figure 5.4). The route of administration and presystemic metabolism markedly influence the pattern of drug metabolism. For example, when salbutamol is given to asthmatic subjects, the ratio of unchanged drug to metabolite in the urine is 2:1 after intravenous administration, but 1:2 after an oral dose. Propranolol undergoes substantial hepatic presystemic metabolism, and small doses given orally are completely metabolized before they reach the systematic circulation. After intravenous administration, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve is proportional to the dose administered and passes through the origin (Figure 5.5). After oral administration the relationship, although linear, does not pass through the origin and there is a threshold dose below which measurable concentrations of propranolol are not detectable in systemic venous plasma. The usual dose of drugs with substantial presystemic metabolism differs very markedly if the drug is given by the oral or by the systemic route (one must never estimate or guess the i.v. dose of a drug from its usual oral dose for this reason!) In patients with portocaval anastomoses bypassing the liver, hepatic presystemic metabolism is bypassed, so very small drug doses are needed compared to the usual oral dose. Presystemic metabolism is not limited to the liver, since the gastro-intestinal mucosa contains many drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g. CYP3A4, dopa-decarboxylase, catechol- O-methyl transferase (COMT)) which can metabolize drugs, e.g. ciclosporin, felodipine, levodopa, salbutamol, before they enter hepatic portal blood. Pronounced first-pass metabolism by either the gastro-intestinal mucosa (e.g. felodipine, salbutamol, levodopa) or liver (e.g. felodipine, glyceryl trinitrate, morphine, naloxone, verapamil) necessitates high oral doses by comparison with the intravenous route. Alternative routes of drug delivery (e.g. buccal, rectal, sublingual, transdermal) partly or completely bypass presystemic elimination (Chapter 4). Drugs undergoing extensive presystemic metabolism usually exhibit pronounced inter-individual variability in drug disposition. This results in highly variable responses to therapy,

  • Page 2 and 3: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 4 and 5: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 6 and 7: This fifth edition is dedicated to
  • Page 8 and 9: FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG
  • Page 10 and 11: PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th
  • Page 12 and 13: PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  • Page 14 and 15: ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe
  • Page 16 and 17: and acquired factors, notably disea
  • Page 18 and 19: 100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a
  • Page 20 and 21: Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh
  • Page 22 and 23: ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra
  • Page 24 and 25: In reality, processes of eliminatio
  • Page 26 and 27: lood (from which samples are taken
  • Page 28 and 29: ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi
  • Page 30 and 31: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE
  • Page 32 and 33: Transdermal absorption is sufficien
  • Page 34 and 35: FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies
  • Page 36 and 37: and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes
  • Page 40 and 41: Orally administered drug Parenteral
  • Page 42 and 43: ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular
  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is
  • Page 46 and 47: DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a
  • Page 48 and 49: Detailed recommendations on dosage
  • Page 50 and 51: DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are
  • Page 52 and 53: ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru
  • Page 54 and 55: 25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity
  • Page 56 and 57: ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff
  • Page 58 and 59: vagina in girls in their late teens
  • Page 60 and 61: an anti-analgesic effect when combi
  • Page 62 and 63: Case history A 20-year-old female m
  • Page 64 and 65: METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi
  • Page 66 and 67: lifelong effects as a result of tox
  • Page 68 and 69: DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w
  • Page 70 and 71: DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common
  • Page 72 and 73: FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ
  • Page 74 and 75: Factors involved in the aetiology o
  • Page 76 and 77: analgesic. Following its release, t
  • Page 78 and 79: antibiotics, such as penicillin or
  • Page 80 and 81: predisposes to non-immune haemolysi
  • Page 82 and 83: ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte
  • Page 84 and 85: Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra
  • Page 86 and 87: Table 13.1: Interactions outside th
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    Table 13.5: Competitive interaction

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    ● Introduction: ‘personalized m

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    Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp

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    lipoprotein (LDL) is impaired. LDL

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    Key points • Genetic differences

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    • Discovery • • Screening Pre

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    Too many statistical comparisons pe

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    ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all

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    Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en

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    duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve

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    ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97

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    A case report has suggested a possi

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    including hypericin and pseudohyper

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    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff

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    and daytime sleeping should be disc

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    Key points • Insomnia and anxiety

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    Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo

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    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

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    Oral medication, especially in liqu

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    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

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    Partial response to first-line trea

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    Key points Drug treatment of depres

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    Case history A 45-year-old man with

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    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

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    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

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    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

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    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

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    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

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    absolute arbiter. The availability

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    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

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    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

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    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

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    Assessment of migraine severity and

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    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

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    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

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    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

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    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

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    have also proved useful in combinat

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    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

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    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

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    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

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    increases, correlating with the hig

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    • If possible, use oral medicatio

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    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

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    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

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    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

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    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

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    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

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    esponsible for the strong predilect

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    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

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    educed). The risk of muscle damage

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    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

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    Each of these classes of drug reduc

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    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

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    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

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    Key points Drugs used in essential

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    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

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    Assess risk factors Investigations:

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    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

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    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

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    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

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    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

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    that the pharmacodynamic response i

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    used with apparent benefit in acute

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    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

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    The drugs that are most effective i

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    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

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    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

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    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

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    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

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    should be given to insertion of an

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    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

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    effect when treating sinus bradycar

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    Case history A 24-year-old medical

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    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

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    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

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    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

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    Drug interactions Although synergis

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    use in asthma has declined consider

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    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

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    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

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    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

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    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

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    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

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    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

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    cortical centres affecting vomiting

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    • in hepatocellular failure to re

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    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

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    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

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    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

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    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

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    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

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    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

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    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

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    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

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    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

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    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

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    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

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    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

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    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

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    in prefilled injection devices (‘

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    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

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    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

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    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

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    fertility. It is contraindicated du

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    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

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    effective in life-threatening hyper

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    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

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    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

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    injection may be useful, but if don

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    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

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    elease by the pituitary via negativ

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    Treatment with depot progestogen in

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    infusion using an infusion pump to

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    significant proportion of men who r

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    with symptoms caused by the release

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    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

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    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

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    ● Principles of antibacterial che

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    2. transfer of resistance between o

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

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    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

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    asic quinolone structure dramatical

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    Case history A 70-year-old man with

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    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

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    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

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    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

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    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

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    therapy is adequate though more fre

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    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

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    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

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    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

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    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

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    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

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    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

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    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

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    salvage therapy include azithromyci

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    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

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    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

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    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

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    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

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    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

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    doses are used to prepare patients

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    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

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    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

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    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

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    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

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    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

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    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

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    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

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    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

  • Page 402 and 403:

    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

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    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

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    Therapeutic principles The extent o

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    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

  • Page 412 and 413:

    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

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    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

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    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

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    DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU

  • Page 420 and 421:

    PART XII THE SKIN

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    ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411

  • Page 424 and 425:

    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T

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    SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E

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    TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS

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    effect of too high a dose of UVB in

  • Page 432 and 433:

    PART XIII THE EYE

  • Page 434 and 435:

    ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p

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    to cause pupillary dilatation, name

  • Page 438 and 439:

    Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us

  • Page 440 and 441:

    Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro

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    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

  • Page 444 and 445:

    ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi

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    Table 53.2: Central nervous system

  • Page 448 and 449:

    which provide anonymized data to th

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    Peak plasma levels after smoking ci

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    Key points Acute effects of alcohol

  • Page 454 and 455:

    FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G

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    Table 54.2: Common indications for

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    Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe

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    Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)

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    Note: Page numbers in italics refer

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    atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi

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    Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade

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    5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluoxetine, mo

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    children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa

  • Page 472 and 473:

    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru

  • Page 474 and 475:

    puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu

  • Page 476:

    tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10

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