Views
5 years ago

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

5-fluorouracil 375–6

5-fluorouracil 375–6 fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and 118 flutamide 384 fluticasone 240 folate 392 antagonism in malaria treatment 364 deficiency 268, 269, 392 Toxoplasma gondii 358 vitamin B 12 deficiency 391 see also antifolate analogues folinic acid methotrexate antagonism 374, 375 methotrexate concentrations requiring 42 follicle-stimulating hormone 307, 312, 317 fomiversen 95 fondaparinux 206 food drug absorption and 19 on first-pass metabolism 29 formularies 4 formulations of drugs bioequivalence 18, 90 elderly patients 60 see also liquid preparations fosamprenavir 356 foscarnet 346 cytomegalovirus 359 eye 427 fosphenytoin 136, 137 framycetin, eye 427 free-radical hypothesis, Parkinson’s syndrome 124 fulvestrant 312, 384 fungi 340 drugs against 340–4 HIV infection 359 skin infections 416 furosemide 275 methotrexate and 375 pulmonary oedema 213 fusidic acid 329 eye 427 on liver 262 fusion inhibitors (HIV) 357 G-protein-linked receptors 7 desensitization 9 G6PD deficiency see glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency GABA (�-aminobutyric acid) 133 gabapentin 138 galantamine 131–2 gallstones drug-induced 69 octreotide 317 ganciclovir 346–7 cytomegalovirus infection 359 eye 427 garlic 97–8 gastrectomy partial, iron absorption 389 vitamin B 12 deficiency 391 gastric emptying see stomach, emptying gastric haemorrhage 252 aspirin 157 gastric lavage 445 gastric ulcers, endoscopy 249 gastrin 247 gastro-oesophageal reflux, pregnancy 49 gastrointestinal tract 247–59 bacteria drug absorption and 20 drug metabolism 29 ‘dialysis’ 446 diseases on drug disposition 34 drug metabolism 28, 29 iron preparations on 390 kidney disease on 35 pharmacokinetics 19–20 gate mechanisms, pain 155 Gaucher’s disease, biotechnology 92 gefitinib 381 gemcitabine 377 gemeprost 311 gemfibrozil 181, 182, 183 gemtuzumab 383 gene therapy 92, 94–5, 96 general anaesthetics 145–54 inhalational 145–8 intravenous 148–9 generalized seizures, drugs for 134 generic drugs 90 prescribing 17–18 genetic variations, first-pass metabolism 29 genistein 100 genital herpes, aciclovir 345 gentamicin 328 eye 427 methotrexate and 375 plasma concentration monitoring 42 geriatrics, polypharmacy (case) 5 germ-line gene therapy 94 GHB (�-hydroxybutyric acid) 442 giant-cell arteritis, prednisolone 169 Giardia lamblia, drugs for 365 Gilbert’s disease 84 ginkgo biloba 99 ginseng 98–9 glargine insulin 286 glaucoma acetazolamide 274 from anticholinergic agents 238 drugs for 425–6 mydriatics and 425 osmotic diuretics 276 glibenclamide 289 elderly patients and 59 gliclazide 289 glitazones 289–90 globalization, drug development 91 glomerular filtration 31 ACEIs 188 children 53 estimated rate 57 heart failure 35 pregnancy 47 renal failure 36 thyroid disease 39 glomerulonephritis, immune-complex, penicillamine 171 glucagon 288 glucan, echinocandins on synthesis 343 glucocorticoids 169, 302–5 for allergic disease 405 as anti-emetics 255 asthma 239 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 236, 239 dermatitis 413–14 eye 427 hay fever 406 idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 395 immunosuppression 400–1 inflammatory bowel disease 255 inhaled 234, 239 for malignant disease 384 requirement reduction 241 thyroid disease 39 see also corticosteroids; hydrocortisone; prednisolone glucosamine 101 INDEX 457 glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 68–9, 81, 83, 331, 366 glucuronidation 25–7 neonates 28 glutamate 133 glutathione 27, 260 glycerol suppositories 257 glyceryl trinitrate 196–7, 198, 200–1 glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, inhibitors 209 glycylxylidide 223 gold salts 170–1 gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 307 analogues 317–18, 384 gonadotrophins 307, 312, 317 Good Clinical Practice 87 goserelin 312, 317, 318, 384 gout 171–3 granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 394 grapefruit juice 408 Graves’ ophthalmopathy 295 grey baby syndrome, chloramphenicol 328 griseofulvin 344 on spermatozoa 46 growth hormone 316–17 recombinant 92, 316 gynaecomastia, cimetidine 250 H1-receptors 404 antagonists see antihistamines H 2-receptor antagonists 249–51 elderly patients 60 pancreatic enzyme replacement and 250, 259 H 2-receptors 404 H 3-receptors 404 haematinics see folate; iron; vitamin B 12 haematopoietic growth factors 370, 379, 392–4 haemodynamics, nitrates 201 haemolytic anaemia adverse drug reactions 68–9 antibiotics 331 methaemoglobinaemia 83 haemolytic disease of the newborn 400 haemophilias 394–5 desmopressin 278, 395 haemorrhage gastric 252 aspirin 157 liver disease 260 oesophageal varices 261 half-life, drug concentration 12, 13 heparin 206 liver disease 38 repeated dosing and 14 two-compartment models 15 halibut liver oil 265–6 hallucinogens 437 halofantrine 363 haloperidol 112, 114 halothane 146, 147 haptens 400 hay fever 405, 406 heart anthracyclines on 377–8 see also entries beginning cardiac... heart failure 211–16 �-adrenoceptor antagonists 190, 214 pharmacokinetics 34–5 Helicobacter pylori 247–8, 249 helminthic infections 364–6 heparins 205–6 pregnancy 50, 209 hepatic encephalopathy 260–2 hepatitis, viral 348–9 chronic 261 hepatitis B virus 261

458 INDEX hepatotoxicity 69, 262, 263 halothane 146, 147 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 169 rifampicin 336 see also paracetamol hepcidin 389 herbal medicines 97–102 heroin (diamorphine) 161, 434, 435, 442 herpes simplex virus infection aciclovir 345 HIV infection 359 skin 417 high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 179 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 352–3 hirsutism 412 hirudin 206–7 histamine 404–5 atracurium causing release 151 histone deacetylase inhibitors 382 histoplasmosis drugs for 340 HIV infection 359 historical aspects 86 opioids 159 history-taking 4 adverse drug reactions 63 HIV infection 351–60 tuberculosis 338, 359 see also anti-HIV drugs HMG CoA reductase inhibitors see statins hoarseness, inhaled glucocorticoids 239 Hoffmann elimination, atracurium 151 homeopathic medicines 97 hookworm, drugs for 365 hormone replacement therapy (HRT) 311–12, 315 progestogens in 308, 312 hormones for acne 411 for malignant disease 383–4 human normal immunoglobulin 407–8 humanization antibodies 382 recombinant proteins 93 humoral immunity 399 Huntington’s disease 129 hydatid disease, drugs for 365 hydralazine 194 nitrates with 214 slow acetylators 81, 82 hydration, skin 20 hydrocortisone 303–4 anaphylactic shock 405 asthma 239 G6PD deficiency and 83 respiratory failure 242 hydrolysis of drugs 25 �-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) 442 hydroxychloroquine, rheumatoid arthritis 170 hydroxyphenyl amines 260 5-hydroxytryptamine migraine 142 mood disorders and 116 syndrome 118 see also serotonin-only hypothesis 5-hydroxytryptamine 1 agonists, migraine 142–3 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists 254 hydroxyurea 377 hyoscine 253 hypercalcaemia 299 diuretics 192 hyperkalaemia 278–9, 280 ACEIs 188 calcium chloride in 227 treatment of heart failure 213 hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma 288 hypersensitivity reactions 399–400 delayed 66–7, 400 glucocorticoids for 400 with histamine release 404–5 vaccine preparations 407 hypertension 185–95 alcoholism 440 diabetes mellitus 286 erythropoietin 396 pregnancy 50 see also antihypertensive drugs hypertensive crises, monoamine oxidase inhibitors 120, 123 hyperthermia, malignant 80, 83–4, 152 hyperthyroidism 292, 293–5 pharmacokinetics 38–9 hyperuricaemia 171–3 hypnotics 105–7, 108, 109 elderly patients 58, 107 hypocalcaemia 300 hypoglycaemia 288 �-adrenoceptor antagonists 190, 214, 224 alcohol 442 hypogonadism, male 313 hypokalaemia 278 diuretics 192, 275 drug-induced 69 elderly patients 59 heart failure 213 liver disease 38, 40 hyponatraemia antidepressants 118, 122 SIADH 277 hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism in 293 hypotension ACEIs 213 poisoning 446 postural 57–8 streptokinase 202 hypothermia 220 hypothyroidism 293 pharmacokinetics 38–9 hypovolaemia 277–8 hypoxia, nitrous oxide 147 hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF) 393 ibuprofen 158 idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 395 idiosyncratic drug reactions 62 idoxuridine, eye 427 ifosfamide 372 imatinib 380–1 imidazoles 341–2 imipenem 327 immune-complex glomerulonephritis, penicillamine 171 immune-complex reactions 66, 400 immune responses 399 mediators and blockers 404–6 immunoglobulins (therapeutic) 93, 407–8 immunopharmacology 399–408 immunostimulants 407 immunosuppressive drugs 399, 400–4 inflammatory bowel disease 256 myasthenia gravis 130 plasma concentration monitoring 43 rheumatoid arthritis 170 impotence see erectile dysfunction inclusion criteria, clinical trials 88 incontinence 279 indinavir 356 indometacin 169 on ductus arteriosus 46, 313 induction of enzymes 27–8, 76 anticonvulsants 137 infections alcoholism 440 bacterial, treatment algorithm 324 carbimazole 294 cytotoxic chemotherapy 371 diabetes mellitus 287 eye 427 immunosuppression 400 mycobacterial 334–9 opioid addiction 435 parasites 361–6 skin 416–17 streptococcal, streptokinase and 202 viral 344 hepatitis 261, 348–9 skin 417 see also anti-HIV drugs; antiviral agents; HIV infection see also antibiotics; fungi; urinary tract, infections infective endocarditis, prophylaxis with antibiotics 325 infertility cytotoxic drugs 371 drugs for 312 immunosuppressive drugs 400 inflammation 167 inflammatory bowel disease 255–6 infliximab Crohn’s disease 256 immune diseases 171, 404 psoriasis 415 influenza, antiviral agents for 348 infusion, pharmacokinetics 11–12 inhalational anaesthetics 145–8 inhalers asthma 234 children 54 drug absorption from 21 glucocorticoids 239 asthma 234 insulin via 288 salbutamol 237 inhibition, enzymes 28 inhibitors, receptors 7 injection site reactions, enfuvirtide 357 inotropes, positive 212 insomnia 105–7 insulin(s) 286–8 ‘designer’ 92–3, 286 elderly patients 59 physiology 285 intensive care, sedation 150 intensive monitoring, adverse drug reactions 65 interferon-alfa 2b 385 interferons 348–9 theophylline and 239 viral hepatitis 261 interleukin-2 384, 407 interleukin-11 394 international normalized ratio (INR) 207 paracetamol overdose 447 interstitial nephritis, drug-induced 69, 70, 168 interstitial pneumonitis, bleomycin 385 intra-ocular pressure 425 see also glaucoma intra-uterine devices 310 intracranial pressure halothane and 146 osmotic diuretics 276 intramuscular injection 21 intranuclear receptors 7 intrathecal route 22 baclofen 128 methotrexate 375 morphine 160 intravenous route 22 anaesthetics 148–9

  • Page 2 and 3:

    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

  • Page 4 and 5:

    A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology

  • Page 6 and 7:

    This fifth edition is dedicated to

  • Page 8 and 9:

    FOREWORD viii PREFACE ix ACKNOWLEDG

  • Page 10 and 11:

    PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th

  • Page 12 and 13:

    PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES

  • Page 14 and 15:

    ● Use of drugs 3 ● Adverse effe

  • Page 16 and 17:

    and acquired factors, notably disea

  • Page 18 and 19:

    100 Effect (%) 0 0 5 10 1 10 100 (a

  • Page 20 and 21:

    Dose ratio -1 100 50 The relationsh

  • Page 22 and 23:

    ● Introduction 11 ● Constant-ra

  • Page 24 and 25:

    In reality, processes of eliminatio

  • Page 26 and 27:

    lood (from which samples are taken

  • Page 28 and 29:

    ● Introduction 17 ● Bioavailabi

  • Page 30 and 31:

    ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORAL ROUTE

  • Page 32 and 33:

    Transdermal absorption is sufficien

  • Page 34 and 35:

    FURTHER READING Fix JA. Strategies

  • Page 36 and 37:

    and thromboxanes are CYP450 enzymes

  • Page 38 and 39:

    and lorazepam. Some patients inheri

  • Page 40 and 41:

    Orally administered drug Parenteral

  • Page 42 and 43:

    ● Introduction 31 ● Glomerular

  • Page 44 and 45:

    ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION This is

  • Page 46 and 47:

    DISTRIBUTION Drug distribution is a

  • Page 48 and 49:

    Detailed recommendations on dosage

  • Page 50 and 51:

    DIGOXIN Myxoedematous patients are

  • Page 52 and 53:

    ● Introduction 41 ● Role of dru

  • Page 54 and 55:

    25 20 10 Life-threatening toxicity

  • Page 56 and 57:

    ● Introduction 45 ● Harmful eff

  • Page 58 and 59:

    vagina in girls in their late teens

  • Page 60 and 61:

    an anti-analgesic effect when combi

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Case history A 20-year-old female m

  • Page 64 and 65:

    METABOLISM At birth, the hepatic mi

  • Page 66 and 67:

    lifelong effects as a result of tox

  • Page 68 and 69:

    DISTRIBUTION Ageing is associated w

  • Page 70 and 71:

    DIGOXIN Digoxin toxicity is common

  • Page 72 and 73:

    FURTHER READING Dhesi JK, Allain TJ

  • Page 74 and 75:

    Factors involved in the aetiology o

  • Page 76 and 77:

    analgesic. Following its release, t

  • Page 78 and 79:

    antibiotics, such as penicillin or

  • Page 80 and 81:

    predisposes to non-immune haemolysi

  • Page 82 and 83:

    ● Introduction 71 ● Useful inte

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Response Therapeutic range Toxic ra

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Table 13.1: Interactions outside th

  • Page 88 and 89:

    Table 13.5: Competitive interaction

  • Page 90 and 91:

    ● Introduction: ‘personalized m

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Table 14.2: Variations in drug resp

  • Page 94 and 95:

    lipoprotein (LDL) is impaired. LDL

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Key points • Genetic differences

  • Page 98 and 99:

    • Discovery • • Screening Pre

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Too many statistical comparisons pe

  • Page 102 and 103:

    ETHICS COMMITTEES Protocols for all

  • Page 104 and 105:

    Table 16.1: Recombinant proteins/en

  • Page 106 and 107:

    duration and benefit. Adenoviral ve

  • Page 108 and 109:

    ● Introduction 97 ● Garlic 97

  • Page 110 and 111:

    A case report has suggested a possi

  • Page 112 and 113:

    including hypericin and pseudohyper

  • Page 114 and 115:

    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Page 116 and 117:

    ● Introduction 105 ● Sleep diff

  • Page 118 and 119:

    and daytime sleeping should be disc

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Key points • Insomnia and anxiety

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Box 19.1: Dopamine theory of schizo

  • Page 124 and 125:

    The Boston Collaborative Survey ind

  • Page 126 and 127:

    Oral medication, especially in liqu

  • Page 128 and 129:

    e.g. interpersonal difficulties or

  • Page 130 and 131:

    Partial response to first-line trea

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Key points Drug treatment of depres

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Case history A 45-year-old man with

  • Page 136 and 137:

    Levodopa PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT IN

  • Page 138 and 139:

    • pulmonary, retroperitoneal and

  • Page 140 and 141:

    CHOREA The γ-aminobutyric acid con

  • Page 142 and 143:

    Cholinergic crisis Treatment of mya

  • Page 144 and 145:

    ● Introduction 133 ● Mechanisms

  • Page 146 and 147:

    absolute arbiter. The availability

  • Page 148 and 149:

    Table 22.2: Metabolic interactions

  • Page 150 and 151:

    FURTHER ANTI-EPILEPTICS Other drugs

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Case history A 24-year-old woman wh

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Assessment of migraine severity and

  • Page 156 and 157:

    ● General anaesthetics 145 ● In

  • Page 158 and 159:

    is the theoretical concern of a ‘

  • Page 160 and 161:

    • Respiratory system - apnoea fol

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Competitive antagonists (vecuronium

  • Page 164 and 165:

    have also proved useful in combinat

  • Page 166 and 167:

    ● Introduction 155 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 168 and 169:

    ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLATE) Use Anti

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Key points Drugs for mild pain •

  • Page 172 and 173:

    increases, correlating with the hig

  • Page 174 and 175:

    • If possible, use oral medicatio

  • Page 176 and 177:

    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

  • Page 178 and 179:

    ● Introduction: inflammation 167

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Chapter 33). All NSAIDs cause wheez

  • Page 182 and 183:

    • Stomatitis suggests the possibi

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Pharmacokinetics Allopurinol is wel

  • Page 186 and 187:

    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  • Page 188 and 189:

    ● Introduction 177 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 190 and 191:

    esponsible for the strong predilect

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Ezetimibe Fat Muscle Dietary fat In

  • Page 194 and 195:

    educed). The risk of muscle damage

  • Page 196 and 197:

    ● Introduction 185 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Each of these classes of drug reduc

  • Page 200 and 201:

    AT 1 receptor) produce good 24-hour

  • Page 202 and 203:

    Table 28.2: Examples of calcium-cha

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Key points Drugs used in essential

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Case history A 72-year-old woman se

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Assess risk factors Investigations:

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Persistent ST segment elevation Thr

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Mechanism of action GTN works by re

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Because of the risks of haemorrhage

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Intrinsic pathway XIIa XIa the acti

  • Page 218 and 219:

    that the pharmacodynamic response i

  • Page 220 and 221:

    used with apparent benefit in acute

  • Page 222 and 223:

    ● Introduction 211 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 224 and 225:

    The drugs that are most effective i

  • Page 226 and 227:

    therapeutic plasma concentration ca

  • Page 228 and 229:

    ● Common dysrhythmias 217 ● Gen

  • Page 230 and 231:

    BASIC LIFE SUPPORT CARDIOPULMONARY

  • Page 232 and 233:

    arrest. The electrocardiogram is li

  • Page 234 and 235:

    should be given to insertion of an

  • Page 236 and 237:

    Drug interactions Amiodarone potent

  • Page 238 and 239:

    effect when treating sinus bradycar

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Case history A 24-year-old medical

  • Page 242 and 243:

    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  • Page 244 and 245:

    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

  • Page 246 and 247:

    STEP 5: CONTINUOUS OR FREQUENT USE

  • Page 248 and 249:

    Adenylyl cyclase Table 33.1: Compar

  • Page 250 and 251:

    Drug interactions Although synergis

  • Page 252 and 253:

    use in asthma has declined consider

  • Page 254 and 255:

    α 1-antitrypsin deficiency, neutro

  • Page 256 and 257:

    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

  • Page 258 and 259:

    ● Peptic ulceration 247 ● Oesop

  • Page 260 and 261:

    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

  • Page 262 and 263:

    Ranitidine has a similar profile of

  • Page 264 and 265:

    Vestibular stimulation ? via cerebe

  • Page 266 and 267:

    cortical centres affecting vomiting

  • Page 268 and 269:

    • in hepatocellular failure to re

  • Page 270 and 271:

    Ciprofloxacin is occasionally used

  • Page 272 and 273:

    withdrawal), small doses of benzodi

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Table 34.7: Dose-independent hepato

  • Page 276 and 277:

    ● Introduction 265 ● General ph

  • Page 278 and 279:

    dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Table 35.1: Common trace element de

  • Page 282 and 283:

    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

  • Page 284 and 285:

    ● Introduction 273 ● Volume ove

  • Page 286 and 287:

    Key points Diuretics Diuretics are

  • Page 288 and 289:

    is sometimes caused by drugs, notab

  • Page 290 and 291:

    or with potassium-sparing diuretics

  • Page 292 and 293:

    Greger R, Lang F, Sebekova, Heidlan

  • Page 294 and 295:

    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • Page 296 and 297:

    ● Introduction 285 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 298 and 299:

    in prefilled injection devices (‘

  • Page 300 and 301:

    Metformin should be withdrawn and i

  • Page 302 and 303:

    FURTHER READING American Diabetes A

  • Page 304 and 305:

    deficiency. Potassium iodide (3 mg

  • Page 306 and 307:

    fertility. It is contraindicated du

  • Page 308 and 309:

    ● Introduction 297 ● Vitamin D

  • Page 310 and 311:

    effective in life-threatening hyper

  • Page 312 and 313:

    Further reading Block GA, Martin KJ

  • Page 314 and 315:

    Table 40.1: Actions of cortisol and

  • Page 316 and 317:

    injection may be useful, but if don

  • Page 318 and 319:

    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

  • Page 320 and 321:

    elease by the pituitary via negativ

  • Page 322 and 323:

    Treatment with depot progestogen in

  • Page 324 and 325:

    infusion using an infusion pump to

  • Page 326 and 327:

    significant proportion of men who r

  • Page 328 and 329:

    with symptoms caused by the release

  • Page 330 and 331:

    FURTHER READING Birnbaumer M. Vasop

  • Page 332 and 333:

    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

  • Page 334 and 335:

    ● Principles of antibacterial che

  • Page 336 and 337:

    2. transfer of resistance between o

  • Page 338 and 339:

    Pharmacokinetics Absorption of thes

  • Page 340 and 341:

    Mechanism of action Macrolides bind

  • Page 342 and 343:

    asic quinolone structure dramatical

  • Page 344 and 345:

    Case history A 70-year-old man with

  • Page 346 and 347:

    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

  • Page 348 and 349:

    Pharmacokinetics Absorption from th

  • Page 350 and 351:

    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION Lepr

  • Page 352 and 353:

    POLYENES AMPHOTERICIN B Uses Amphot

  • Page 354 and 355:

    therapy is adequate though more fre

  • Page 356 and 357:

    NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUES ACICLOVIR Uses

  • Page 358 and 359:

    Table 45.3: Summary of available ac

  • Page 360 and 361:

    Uses Interferon-α when combined wi

  • Page 362 and 363:

    ● Introduction 351 ● Immunopath

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Table 46.1: Examples of combination

  • Page 366 and 367:

    NON-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGUE REVERSE TRA

  • Page 368 and 369:

    FUSION INHIBITORS Uses Currently, e

  • Page 370 and 371:

    salvage therapy include azithromyci

  • Page 372 and 373:

    ● Malaria 361 ● Trypanosomal in

  • Page 374 and 375:

    Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine is rap

  • Page 376 and 377:

    Table 47.2: Drug therapy of non-mal

  • Page 378 and 379:

    ● Introduction 367 ● Pathophysi

  • Page 380 and 381:

    Table 48.1: Classification of commo

  • Page 382 and 383:

    Polymorph count/mm 3 (a) (b) 10 000

  • Page 384 and 385:

    doses are used to prepare patients

  • Page 386 and 387:

    Adverse effects Methotrexate Inhibi

  • Page 388 and 389:

    Table 48.7: Summary of clinical pha

  • Page 390 and 391:

    Table 48.9: Summary of the clinical

  • Page 392 and 393:

    Plasma membrane Signal transduction

  • Page 394 and 395:

    Table 48.10: Monoclonal antibodies

  • Page 396 and 397:

    INTERFERON-ALFA 2B Interferon-alfa

  • Page 398 and 399:

    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

  • Page 400 and 401:

    ● Haematinics - iron, vitamin B 1

  • Page 402 and 403:

    one marrow to produce red cells. Th

  • Page 404 and 405:

    EPO Erythroid precursors Erythrocyt

  • Page 406 and 407:

    Therapeutic principles The extent o

  • Page 408 and 409:

    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

  • Page 410 and 411:

    ● Introduction 399 ● Immunity a

  • Page 412 and 413:

    Key points Antigen recognition Expr

  • Page 414 and 415:

    Table 50.1: Novel anti-proliferativ

  • Page 416 and 417:

    Key points Treatment of anaphylacti

  • Page 418 and 419: DRUGS THAT ENHANCE IMMUNE SYSTEM FU
  • Page 420 and 421: PART XII THE SKIN
  • Page 422 and 423: ● Introduction 411 ● Acne 411
  • Page 424 and 425: DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) PRINCIPLES OF T
  • Page 426 and 427: SPECIALISTS ONLY SPECIALISTS ONLY E
  • Page 428 and 429: TREATMENT OF OTHER SKIN INFECTIONS
  • Page 430 and 431: effect of too high a dose of UVB in
  • Page 432 and 433: PART XIII THE EYE
  • Page 434 and 435: ● Introduction: ocular anatomy, p
  • Page 436 and 437: to cause pupillary dilatation, name
  • Page 438 and 439: Table 52.3: Antibacterial agents us
  • Page 440 and 441: Table 52.6: Common drug-induced pro
  • Page 442 and 443: PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
  • Page 444 and 445: ● Introduction 433 ● Pathophysi
  • Page 446 and 447: Table 53.2: Central nervous system
  • Page 448 and 449: which provide anonymized data to th
  • Page 450 and 451: Peak plasma levels after smoking ci
  • Page 452 and 453: Key points Acute effects of alcohol
  • Page 454 and 455: FURTHER READING Goldman D, Oroszi G
  • Page 456 and 457: Table 54.2: Common indications for
  • Page 458 and 459: Table 54.5: Antidotes and other spe
  • Page 460 and 461: Commission on Human Medicines (CHM)
  • Page 462 and 463: Note: Page numbers in italics refer
  • Page 464 and 465: atrial fibrillation 217, 221 digoxi
  • Page 466 and 467: Cushing’s syndrome 302 cyclic ade
  • Page 470 and 471: children 54 diazepam 108 iron prepa
  • Page 472 and 473: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru
  • Page 474 and 475: puberty (male), delay 314 puerperiu
  • Page 476: tolerance 9, 433 benzodiazepines 10
A-Textbook-of-Clinical-Pharmacology-and-Therapeutics-5th-edition
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Experience In Using PBPK Models in Clinical Pharmacology Reviews
ReadOnline Soliman s Auricular Therapy Textbook: New Localizations and Evidence Based Therapeutic Approaches M.D. Nader Soliman PreOrder
Diagnosis and pharmacological management of Parkinson's - SIGN
Prescribing and Pharmacology of Controlled Drugs: Critical Issues ...
Role of Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology in Guiding Drug
An Anatomico-Clinical Overview - Advances in Clinical ...
2012 EDUCATIONAL BOOK - American Society of Clinical Oncology
HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care : Clinical protocols for the European ...
NEWS - The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
A textbook of pharmacology and therapeutics, or, The action of ...
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS FOR THE ...
O - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Pharmacology and therapeutics, clinical trial - Dermage
O - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
B - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics