Changing Lives With Big Data In A Congestion Filled Manchester Luke Abberley This research focuses on changing the impact of non-recurrent congestion on our lives by reducing the amount of chemicals released into the air, which is caused by vehicles stuck in traffic. This has caused 1.9 billion gallons of fuel being wasted, costing an estimated €100-200 billion each year. Route Guidance Systems (RGS), such as sat navs and Google Traffic, do not provide enough context to drivers relating to their journey. To help optimise the road users decision making, RGS need to be capable of converting information gained from multiple heterogeneous data sources into information all road users will find useful. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework that captures the semantics of road traffic congestion and its causes and to use the model to identify better and alleviate congestion in the Greater Manchester region. To achieve this aim two main components are required. The first component is a conceptual model, which consists of analogy and an ontology of congestion. The second is an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), which requires a dynamic ‘Geodatabase’ that supports spatial and temporal data and capable of supporting complexity and volume at a ‘big data’ level. Also, using big data, the ITS must be capable of performing data analysis such as pattern recognition to identify road traffic incidents, which will then allow congestion to be predicted and mitigated against. Finally, these identification and prediction results that are currently meaningless to road users without the context being provided in a language all road users can understand. Anthropometry and group sizes in clothing Monika Balach,Iwona Frydrych, Agnieszka Cichocka This is a study in the field of anthropometry (measurements of the human body). Many clothing industries still rely on outdated clothing size tables which can result in clothes not fitting as well as they should. These tables are also inconsistent between the various clothing companies making it difficult for the consumer to select the correct size. The aim of this research is to derive an improved standardised size table which can be used as a reference across the entire clothing industry. This research discusses the many factors that influence size measurements, for example ethnic diversity, eating habits, standard of living, daily life activity etc. The research consists of data collected from 250 people in the age range of 20-35. For both men and women, four basic measurements were taken – height, chest, waist and hip. Analysis of the results confirms that the distribution of real-test data does not show similarities consistent with a normal distribution. The study demonstrated the existence of a significant linear relationship between the following values: waist circumference, hip circumference and chest circumference. Knowing one of these three measurements, one may judge the values of the remaining two with high probability, provided that we know the interdependence between these characteristics. The height shows a very weak linear relationship with the other three characteristics (chest, waist and hip). In some cases there is no linear relationship at all. Proper development and implementation of new anthropometric measurements and fitting techniques using 3D scanning may result in the improved fit and functionality of clothing, thus leading to increased customer satisfaction. Therefore this could be a valuable tool in paving the way for future clothing technology development which is necessary in order to remain at the forefront of the competitive consumer market.
An exploration of English for Legal Purposes in the Algerian Higher Education Leila Benseddik Algerian law students face serious obstacles in joining the legal communities locally and internationally. This is due to their lack of the disciplinary knowledge of legal genre, behaviours and practices. The present research is an exploration of the field of law regarding the teaching of legal English. It aims at developing and evaluating an experimental English course which will enable law students not only to be highly competent academically, but also to possess a strong command of the English language in order to better perform in the legal profession. Since the study is a case of English for Specific Purposes (ESP), the first step was to conduct a Needs Analysis regarding students’ needs, lacks and necessities in legal English. In order to do so, the researcher conducted interviews with ELP teachers, administered questionnaires to Law students and attended their English sessions to do the classroom observation. The Needs Analysis findings revealed that these students need the ability to truly integrate in the legal community which necessitates a good knowledge of the specific language and practice (discourse and genre) that characterize this community. Based on the outcomes of the Needs Analysis, the researcher’ s second step is to design an experimental course to be taught for law students aiming at teaching them the legal behaviours associated with legal uses of the English language in order to help them practice their legal skills in their future communities successfully. Evaluating enzymatic catalysis with the Heat-Transfer Method (HTM) K. Betlem , M. Zubko , D. Sawtell , P. Kelly , M. Peeters The heat-transfer method (HTM) is a novel thermal detection principle that has already shown its use in the analysis of DNA mutations, the identification of cancer cells and the detection of neurotransmitters. Depending on the measurement at hand, the chip surface will be functionalized accordingly. This surface is the central element through which the heat flux will pass. The internal temperature of the heat sink, T 1, is measured by a thermocouple and steered via a controller, which is connected to a power resistor. The front side of the functionalized chip is exposed to the liquid, where T 2 is measured at the solid−liquid interface. To extract the heat-transfer resistance R th (°C/W) quantitatively, the ratio of the temperature difference ΔT = T 1 − T 2 and the input power P according to R th = ΔT/P, is analysed. Changes in the interface will reflect in a difference in the overall thermal resistance. As a first proof-of-principle, evaluation of the catalytic activity of two DNA sequences that only vary in one or two nucleotides will be performed. This difference makes one of the sequences a substrate for a restriction enzyme (EcoR1), while the other sequence lacks a recognition site and is not a suitable substrate for digestion with EcoR1. It is suggested that any differences in HTM responses (shorter DNA strand = lower thermal resistance) will be the reflection of the catalytic activities. As a proof-of-application, catalytic activity of restriction enzymes in vivo will be studied using cell extracts of wild type and cdc13-1 mutant.
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