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Caring for the

Caring for the caregivers: Exploring the experience of South Asian carers of people with dementia in the UK Ambily Sathish The substantial contribution to dementia care made by the members of ethnic minority groups has not been fully recognised. These groups of caregivers are significantly under-represented in the provision of dementia services and this has been highlighted as a key policy issue by the DOH. They often face social challenges, language and education constraints and cultural barriers when they attempt to access the community services. Therefore, more research is required to know the perspectives of caregivers from South Asian background. The aim of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding into how South Asians feel about supporting a family member with dementia, particularly what care-giving means to them. Method: This study will use the qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews. A maximum of 10 caregivers of people with dementia will be recruited from the local community settings. The transcripts will be analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to generate the themes and subthemes. Finite Element Modelling of Auxetic Materials for Sports Equipment Applications Todd Shepherd, Heather Driscoll, Keith Winwood, Praburaj Venkatraman, Andrew Alderson and Tom Allen Auxetics are innovative materials that get thinner when compressed and thicker when stretched, the opposite of how a conventional material acts. Such counter-intuitive behaviour leads to beneficial mechanical properties including increased resistance to indentation and greater energy absorption. A potential application of these properties is within sport equipment designed for limiting harmful impact forces - for example, a shin pad resisting a stud impact or pads absorbing the energy of a fast moving ball (e.g cricket). Auxetics therefore have the potential to contribute to the enhancement of sports protective equipment and, thus, reduce prevalent injuries caused by impact forces. Reducing injury risks can also increase participation, which in turn leads to a healthier lifestyle and reduced healthcare costs - NHS providers spent over £900 million on addressing health issues caused by physical inactivity in 2009/10 (BHFNC, 2014). The potential of applying auxetics to sports equipment has been demonstrated (Allen et al, 2015), but the existing work mainly involves time-consuming development of material samples accompanied with experimental testing. This research will therefore aim to change the current practice by applying finite element modelling to auxetics - an engineering technique that uses computer models to simulate how materials behave, allowing for in-depth assessment of design considerations. The models created will thus inform better application of auxetics within sport protective equipment; providing an alternative design process that will ultimately result in a predictive design tool. Auxetics can change perspectives, not only with their unexpected behaviour but also with their application.

Cognitive Behavioural Social Competence Interventions for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic PRISMA Review. David Tate Background: Cognitive behavioural social competence interventions are gaining in popularity for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. There is a limited amount of literature to support the efficacy of these frequently used interventions and the few studies to address efficacy often encounter mixed results. Objective: To examine and evaluate the current literature on cognitive behavioural social competence interventions for adolescents and adults with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder without a comorbid intellectual disability. Data Sources: In June 2016 the following database searches were carried out: Ovid Medline (1946 to June week 2, 2016), PsychINFO (1806 to June week 2, 2016), HMIC Health management information consortium (1979 to March 2016), Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED; 1985 to June 2016), Ovid Medline Epub Ahead of Print (June 10, 2016), and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (1985 to June 2016). Results: A total of 11 studies which included 333 participants were included in this review. Across all participants, 42 were adults and 291 were adolescents. There were six forms of assessment utilised to measure the social competencies of participants. Across the 11 included studies in this review, six (54.5%) reported positive outcome data, four (36.3%) reported mixed outcome data and one (9.2%) reported negative outcome data. Conclusion: While it does seem that cognitive behavioural interventions can be effective in improving social competencies for some adolescents and adults with ASD, more research is needed before conclusions of efficacy can be drawn. Exploring Morphogenetic Engineering to Manage Self-Organisation in Socio-Technical Complex Systems Nicolas Toussaint A universal dilemma between “autonomy” and “coordination” is at play in any group of humans interacting with a dynamic environment, such as firms or urban communities. While strong ties within the group improve the efficiency of the agents and their ability to act on a larger scale (such as workers on a production line), weak ties also give them greater autonomy to form independent subsets within the group (such as medical practices hosting different healthcare professionals, or open source projects bringing various programmers together). This can be observed in firms through the contrast between “vertically integrated” organisations (e.g. administrations) and “flat” organisations (e.g. craft guilds or “adhocracies”). Previous research works have proposed to randomly add shortcut links between agents so that they could coordinate via fewer intermediaries , thereby paving the way to hybrid hierarchical-heterarchical systems. Our work aims to pursue this endeavour by creating a framework to foster dynamic autonomous systems. The idea is to integrate self-organisation to lead a complex system and its subparts toward a balance between autonomy and coordination in accordance with their environment. We will focus our work on modern socio-technical systems, where technological advances have created “free and instantaneous” communications, making it easy to track and act on the network dynamics. Our guiding framework will be biological morphogenesis, in which an organisation is construed as an “organism” and each agent is considered a “machine”, adding a dynamic perspective at the level of the agents who process tasks or units of information. This theoretical framework will then be applied to application scenarios involving collaborative work in firms and the Internet of Things.

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