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atw 2018-02


atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 2 ı February 80 CALENDAR Calendar 2018 05.02.-07.02.2018 Components and Structures under Severe Accident Loading Cossal (COSSAL). Cologne, Germany. OECD/NEA, GRS,, www.oecd-nea-org 07.02.-08.02.2018 8. Symposium Stilllegung und Abbau kerntechnischer Anlagen. Hanover, Germany. TÜV Nord, 26.02.-01.03.2018 Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2018. Las Vegas, NV, USA. American Nuclear Society (ANS), 01.03.2018 7. Fachgespräch Endlagerbergbau. Essen, Germany, DMT, GNS, 04.03.-09.03.2018 82. Jahrestagung der DPG. Erlangen, Germany, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), 11.03.-17.03.2018 International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC). Bariloche, Argentina, IYNC and WiN Global, 26.03.-27.03.2018 Fusion energy using tokamaks: can development be accelerated? London, United Kingdom, The Royal Society, 08.04.-11.04.2018 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants – ICAPP 18. Charlotte, NC, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 08.04.-13.04.2018 11 th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry – MARC XI. Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 17.04.-19.04.2018 World Nuclear Fuel Cycle 2018. Madrid, Spain, World Nuclear Association (WNA), 18.04.-19.04.2018 9. Symposium zur Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfälle. Vorbereitung auf KONRAD – Wege zum G2- Gebinde. Hanover, Germany, TÜV NORD Akademie, 22.04.-26.04.2018 Reactor Physics Paving the Way Towards More Efficient Systems – PHYSOR 2018. Cancun, Mexico, 08.05.-10.05.2018 29 th Conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. Herzliya, Israel. Israel Nuclear Society and Israel Society for Radiation Protection, 13.05.-19.05.2018 BEPU-2018 – ANS International Conference on Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainties Methods. Lucca, Italy, NINE – Nuclear and INdustrial Engineering S.r.l., ANS, IAEA, NEA, 13.05.-18.05.2018 RadChem 2018 – 18 th Radiochemical Conference. Marianske Lazne, Czech Republic, 14.05.-16.05.2018 ATOMEXPO 2018. Sochi, Russia, 15.05.-17.05.2018 11 th International Conference on the Transport, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive Materials. London, United Kingdom, Nuclear Institute, 20.05.-23.05.2018 5 th Asian and Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection – AOCRP5. Melbourne, Australia, Australian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) and International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), 29.05.-30.05.2018 49 th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology AMNT 2018 | 49. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik. Berlin, Germany, DAtF and KTG, 03.06.-07.06.2018 38 th CNS Annual Conference and 42 nd CNS-CNA Student Conference. Saskotoon, SK, Canada, Candian Nuclear Society CNS, 03.06.-06.06.2018 HND2018 12 th International Conference of the Croatian Nuclear Society. Zadar, Croatia, Croatian Nuclear Society, 04.06.-07.06.2018 10 th Symposium on CBRNE Threats. Rovaniemi, Finland, Finnish Nuclear Society, 04.06.-08.06.2018 5 th European IRPA Congress – Encouraging Sustainability in Radiation Protection. The Hague, The Netherlands, Dutch Society for Radiation Protection (NVS), local organiser, 06.06.-08.06.2018 2 nd Workshop on Safety of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Garching near Munich, German, GRS, 17.06.-21.06.2018 ANS Annual Meeting “Future of Nuclear in the Shifting Energy Landscape: Safety, Sustainability, and Flexibility”. Philadelphia, PA, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 25.06.-26.06.2018 index2018 – International Nuclear Digital Experience. Paris, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire,, 27.06.-29.06.2018 EEM – 2018 15 th International Conference on the European Energy Market. Lodz, Poland, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP), 29.07.-02.08.2018 International Nuclear Physics Conference 2019. Glasgow, United Kingdom, 05.08.-08.08.2018 Utility Working Conference and Vendor Technology Expo. Amelia Island, FL, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 22.08.-31.08.2018 Frédéric Joliot/Otto Hahn (FJOH) Summer School FJOH-2018 – Maximizing the Benefits of Experiments for the Simulation, Design and Analysis of Reactors. Aix-en-Provence, France, Nuclear Energy Division of Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) and Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 28.08.-31.08.2018 TINCE 2018 – Technological Innovations in Nuclear Civil Engineering. Paris Saclay, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire,, 05.09.-07.09.2018 World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018. London, United Kingdom, World Nuclear Association (WNA), 09.09.-14.09.2018 21 st International Conference on Water Chemistry in Nuclear Reactor Systems. EPRI – Electric Power Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA, 09.09.-14.09.2018 Plutonium Futures – The Science 2018. San Diego, United States, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 10.09.-13.09.2018 Nuclear Energy in New Europe – NENE 2018. Portoroz, Slovenia, Nuclear Society of Slovenia, 17.09.-21.09.2018 62 nd IAEA General Conference. Vienna, Austria. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 17.09.-20.09.2018 FONTEVRAUD 9. Avignon, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire (SFEN), 17.09.-19.09.2018 4 th International Conference on Physics and Technology of Reactors and Applications – PHYTRA4. Marrakech, Morocco, Moroccan Association for Nuclear Engineering and Reactor Technology (GMTR), National Center for Energy, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN) and Moroccan Agency for Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security (AMSSNuR), 30.09.-04.10.2018 TopFuel 2018. Prague, Czwech Republic, European Nuclear Society (ENS), American Nuclear Society (ANS). Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Chinese Nuclear Society and Korean Nuclear Society, 30.09.-05.10.2018 Pacific Nuclear Basin Conferences – PBNC 2018. San Francisco, CA, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), 02.10.-04.10.2018 7 th EU Nuclear Power Plant Simulation ENPPS Forum. Birmingham, United Kingdom, Nuclear Training & Simulation Group, 14.10.-18.10.2018 12 th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety – NUTHOS-12. Qingdao, China, Elsevier, 14.10.-18.10.2018 NuMat 2018. Seattle, United States, 16.10.-17.10.2018 4 th GIF Symposium at the 8 th edition of Atoms for the Future. Paris, France, 22.10.-24.10.2018 DEM 2018 Dismantling Challenges: Industrial Reality, Prospects and Feedback Experience. Paris Saclay, France, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire,, 22.10.-26.10.2018 NUWCEM 2018 Cement-based Materials for Nuclear Waste. Avignon, France, French Commission for Atomic and Alternative Energies and Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire, 24.10.-25.10.2018 Chemistry in Power Plant. Magdeburg, Germany, VGB PowerTech e.V., 11.11.-15.11.2018 ANS Winter Meeting. Orlando, FL, USA, American Nuclear Society (ANS), Calendar

atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 2 ı February Development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor in China Wentao Guo and Michael Schorer 1 Introduction of HTGR Recent developments in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) attracted widespread attention. China, Japan, South Africa, USA, Russia and France are all actively initiating the development work of HTGR. Some developing countries expressed great interest in this type of reactor [1]. | | Fig. 1. The 10 MWt High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) | | Fig. 2. The Pebble fuel element of the HTGR HTGR is one of the six Generation IV reactors put forward by Generation IV International Forum (GIF) in 2002. This type of reactor has high outlet temperature. It uses Helium as coolant and graphite as moderator. The helium temperature at the reactor core inlet/outlet is 250/750 °C. Pebble fuel and ceramic reactor core are adopted. At the center of each poppy seed-size fuel particle is a uranium kernel. Layers of carbon and silicon carbide contain the radioactive material [2]. Figure 1 shows the overall structure of the HTR-10 MW Test Module constructed by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University (INET). Figure 2 shows the pebble fuel element structure of HTGR. The most important feature of modular high temperature gas cooled reactor is that under any accident conditions, including large loss of coolant accident (LLOCA), the reactor can keep in safe state without any human or machine intervention. Modular HTGR also has other advantages such as: 1. High generating efficiency: Its efficiency is 25 % higher than pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants because of the high outlet temperature. 2. 2. Short construction period: 100 MWe HTGR adopts modular construction approach. Construction period can be reduced to two years. Compared to PWR power plants which have 5 to 6 years of construction, the interest payment during construction is reduced and the construction investment can be reduced by 20 %. 3. 3. Simple system: The HTGR has passive safety features which greatly simplify the system. Engineering safety facilities like emergency core cooling system and full grade containment don’t need to be installed, which can reduce the construction investment. 2 The development history of China’s HTR and its current situation The HTGR research and development work in China started in 1970s. By implementing the National High-Technology Project (863), Tsinghua University designed and built HTR-10 MW Test Module under the support of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). It realized the first power generation on January 7, 2003 [3]. In 2006, Tsinghua University in Beijing, China Nuclear Engineering Group Corporation (CNEC) and China Huaneng Group co-financed the construction of the HTR demonstration project, after which a complete industrial chain is formed. In this system, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University is the liability subject of R&D in charge of technology R&D, providing design and technical support; CNEC is the major special project implementation body, responsible for designing, purchasing and constructing the demonstration project of nuclear island and its auxiliary system; Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power CO., LTD. takes charge of the investment operations of the demonstration project [4]. The High Temperature Reactor-Pebble-bed Modules (HTR-PM) under construction has two reactors and one turbine. On December 9, 2012, the construction of Shandong Rongcheng Shidao Bay HTR demonstration project started. On April 20, 2015, civil construction of the basements came to an end and turned to the intensive equipment installation stage. The key point for construction was shifted from civil construction to installation construction. On June the 24 th , after two months of arduous struggle, the Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Project completed the pouring task of the reactor building walls for the first modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Demonstration Reactor in the world [5]. The reactor building walls were poured to 41.30 meters, marking the HTGR project meeting the requirement of heavy equipment lifting. On June the 27 th , capping of the Shidao Bay HTGR conventional island is finished [6]. This is another major project after the pouring task on June 24 th . On March 3, 2016, the construction of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and metal components inside the reactor was finished and they were transported to the site. On September 14, 2016, they finished installing the RPV for the first and second reactor as well as the internal metal components of RPV for the first reactor. The cylindrical vessel, 25 meters high and weighing 610 tons, is the biggest, heaviest and most complicated pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor, according to a statement from Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Co. (HSNPC), the plant’s builder and operator. On October 14, 2016, the demonstration project finished all the tests of inverse power transmission successfully. On December 29, 2016, the main control room in Shidao Bay nuclear power plant is ready to be used. On January 21, 2017, the installation of the reactor core vessel was finished. The reactor core vessel is the key component of the metal structures inside the 81 ENERGY POLICY, ECONOMY AND LAW Energy Policy, Economy and Law Development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor in China ı Wentao Guo and Michael Schorer