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## Fundamentals of

Fundamentals of distributed network protocol 97 GENERATION RECEIPT x2 16 K K M M P 000..00 16 T K K M M R 16 Invert R Q 16 R 16 Invert (Discard) Quotient Remainder P QC RC (Discard) Quotient Remainder 16 R If RC = 0 M is GOOD If RC = 0 M is BAD T K M 16 R K M Transmit Notes: P = 1 0011 1101 0110 0101 = 13D65 (hex) Transmission Order of CRC Data (M) LSB MSB CRC Figure 5.18 CRC code processing Generation of message: • Start with user data block M of k bits (k = 64 for header, 8–128 for blocks in body) • Multiply by 2 16 (ie append 16 zeros to end to form k + 16-bit number) • Divide by generator polynomial P to obtain quotient Q and remainder R modulo-2 division is used) • Discard Q, keep R • Invert R to obtain R′ • Append R′ to M forming message T′ to be transmitted Where generator polynomial: P = x 16 + x 13 + x 12 + x 10 + x 8 + x 5 + x 2 + 1 This forms a 17-bit number which is 13D65 (in hex)

98 Practical Modern SCADA Protocols: DNP3, 60870.5 and Related Systems Processing on receipt of message: • Receive T′ = M followed by R′ • Invert R′ and form T = M appended with R • Divide T by P (using modulo-2 division) • Discard quotient QC, keep calculated remainder RC • If RC = 0, result is GOOD, copy M to data output • If RC not = 0, result is BAD, reject message It is noted that this CRC has a ‘Hamming distance’ of 6. This means that at least 6 bits must have been received in error to obtain a false GOOD DATA result. Summary of data link operation Summary of data link layer: • Receives link service data units from higher layer • Forms the LPDU by including addresses, the control byte, and CRC codes • Uses procedures to deliver the frame across the physical layer • Function codes provide for link initialization and error recovery • Reassembles LSDU at secondary station • Provides status indications to higher levels 5.5 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 5.5.1 Description of transport layer The primary function of the transport layer in DNP3 is to implement message disassembly and reassembly. This allows for the transmission of larger blocks of data than can be handled by the data link layer. Because this functionality is fairly limited compared to the wider OSI definition of the transport layer, the prefix ‘pseudo’ is often used. For simplicity the layer is referred to in this text as the transport layer. 5.5.2 The transport protocol data unit The transport layer takes the user data, the transport service data unit (TSDU) and breaks it down into one or more transport protocol data units (TPDUs) and sends each to the data link layer for sending. The TPDUs become the user data within the data link layer, that is the LSDUs. Recalling that the LSDUs can be a maximum of 250 bytes of user data, this defines the maximum size of the LPDU, including any transport layer overheads. In fact the transport functions are accomplished with a single header byte, leaving 249 bytes for carrying data. This is pictured in the diagram following.

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Contents Preface ..................

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Contents vii 12.6 Frame reception .

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Preface ix Chapter 3: Open SCADA pr

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1 Introduction Objectives When you

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Introduction 3 Figure 1.2 PC to IED

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Introduction 5 The interconnection

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Introduction 7 a number of sub-path

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Introduction 9 The Internet protoco

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Introduction 11 Outside the utiliti

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Key features of SCADA software incl

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2.2.2 Control processor unit (or CP

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2.5.2 Multi-point architecture (Mul

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2.6 Communication philosophies Fund

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Pin 8 - Data carrier detect (DCD) F

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2.7.6 Synchronous communications 2.

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The two most common modes of operat

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2.8.3 Error control/flow control Fu

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6.2 Interoperability between DNP3 d

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6.3.2 Data classes and events Advan

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Recommendations: 6.3.9 Multiple obj

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6.3.15 Time-tagged binary input eve

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Preview of IEC 60870-5 171 7.2 Stan

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Preview of IEC 60870-5 173 Under IE

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Preview of IEC 60870-5 175 over cor

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8 Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 8.1 T

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 179 8.1

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8.1.9 IEC 60870-5-101 1995 Fundamen

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 183 pro

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 185 MAS

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8.4 Data link layer Fundamentals of

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8.4.2 Order of information Fundamen

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8.4.5 Unbalanced and balanced trans

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 193 Sta

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 197 The

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 199 To

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Function codes from secondary stati

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 203 is

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The following notes apply to these

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 207 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 209 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 211 Whe

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 213 8.5

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 215 to

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 217 Mas

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 219 Qua

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 221 Key

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 223 SVA

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 225 Key

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 227 DCO

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8.6.4 Qualifier information element

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Key - QOC Qualifier of command QU Q

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 233 SCQ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 235 LOF

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 237 FBP

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 239 In

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 241 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 243 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 245 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 247 Val

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Type 11 Measured, scaled value Fund

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 251 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 255 Val

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Type 20 Packed single-point with st

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 259 Pro

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 261 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 263 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 265 Typ

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 267 8.7

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Fundamentals of IEC 60870-5 285 Val

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In Figure 9.4 the following time sy

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Basic application functions: 9.2.3

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10 Differences between DNP3 and IEC

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Data objects: Differences between D

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10.2 Which one will win? Difference

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Intelligent electronic devices (IED

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11.2.5 Communications Intelligent e

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 317 tr

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 319 Th

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 321 Fi

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 325 si

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 327 As

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12.8.4 Length Ethernet and TCP/IP n

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 331 To

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12.11.8 Fast Ethernet Ethernet and

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12.12 TCP/IP Ethernet and TCP/IP ne

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 337

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 339 Fi

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Here follows a brief description of

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The three common fields are: Ethern

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Ethernet and TCP/IP networks 347 Th

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• Programmable logic controllers

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Figure 13.9 High speed Ethernet and

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14.2 UCA development UCA protocol 3

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14.3.1 Uniform communications infra

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UCA protocol 367 14.3.4 Uniform app

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14.3.5 Uniform data model UCA proto

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Figure 14.6 Device object model ove

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UCA protocol 373 An excellent refer

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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PDS 500 Data Map Applications of DN

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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Applications of DNP3 and SCADA prot

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16 Future developments Objectives W

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Appendix A Glossary 3GPP 10Base2 10

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Appendix A: Glossary 395 ATM Attenu

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Appendix A: Glossary 397 Capacitanc

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Appendix A: Glossary 399 Decibel (d

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Appendix A: Glossary 401 ESS Etherl

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Appendix A: Glossary 403 I/O addres

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Manchester encoding Appendix A: Glo

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Appendix A: Glossary 407 Packet PAD

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Appendix A: Glossary 409 RFI Ring R

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Appendix A: Glossary 411 TDMA TDR T

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Appendix A: Glossary 413 X.25 CCITT

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Appendix B: Implementers of DNP3 41

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Appendix B: Implementers of DNP3 41

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DNP3 device profile Appendix C: Sam

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Appendix C: Sample device profile d

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Appendix C: Sample device profile d

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Appendix C: Sample device profile d

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Appendix C: Sample device profile d

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Software setup Appendix D: Practica

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Appendix D: Practicals 431 1. Set u

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Objectives • To show how a basic

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Implementation/setting up TCP/IP Cl

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Appendix D: Practicals 437 Click on

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Appendix D: Practicals 439 Click on

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Appendix D: Practicals 441 Now rese

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Appendix D: Practicals 443 Practica

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Appendix D: Practicals 445 This sho

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Appendix D: Practicals 447 Once you

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IMPORTANT NOTICE: Appendix D: Pract

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Appendix D: Practicals 451 (This is

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Appendix D: Practicals 453 PRACTICA

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Click on the Diags button and the f

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Appendix D: Practicals 457 The scre

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Appendix D: Practicals 459 Assume t

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Appendix D: Practicals 461 Problem

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2. IEC 60870-5-101 Packet Analysis

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3.1.1.1.1 Appendix D: Practicals 46

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Appendix D: Practicals 469 Valid Ca

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3.1.1.1.7 Type 14 INFORMATION OBJEC

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Appendix D: Practicals 473 3.1.1.1.

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Appendix D: Practicals 475 QDS Qual

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Appendix D: Practicals 477 7 6 5 4

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3.1.1.1.11 Communication 1 Appendix

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CITECT PRACTICAL For Citect Version

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Appendix D: Practicals 485 Next cli

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Appendix D: Practicals 487 (3) Defi

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Appendix D: Practicals 489

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Appendix D: Practicals 491 (4) Crea

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Appendix D: Practicals 493 Use the

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Appendix D: Practicals 495 Click on

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Appendix D: Practicals 497 When fin

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Appendix D: Practicals 499 What is

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Communication 2 05640DC405001A00637

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05640DC405001A006378C6C601010200003

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Appendix D: Practicals 505 What are

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Appendix D: Practicals 507 01 01 01

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Appendix D: Practicals 509 E2 81 00

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Appendix D: Practicals 511 At fist

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Appendix D: Practicals 513 Then rem

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Appendix D: Practicals 515 The next

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Packet Interpretation Practical App

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056408C40300A200EA80C5C5171E4405641

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Appendix D: Practicals 521 Communic

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05640DC405001A006378C6C601010200003

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Appendix D: Practicals 525 What is

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01 01 01 01 01 01 01 crc:BB crc:C3

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Appendix D: Practicals 529 Read Dat

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Index 531 Carrier sense with multip

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Index 533 support for protocol, 310

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Index 535 process related, 220 bina

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Index 537 signal quality detector,

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