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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

O.6 9 School completion

O.6 9 School completion is higher for richer and urban families, but gender gaps are more context-dependent O.7 10 Why learning doesn’t happen: Four immediate factors that break down O.8 11 Socioeconomic gaps in cognitive achievement grow with age—even in preschool years O.9 11 In Africa, teachers are often absent from school or from classrooms while at school O.10 12 Management capacity is low in schools in low- and middle-income countries O.11 13 Technical and political factors divert schools, teachers, and families from a focus on learning O.12 17 Many countries lack information on learning outcomes O.13 19 Low-performing countries don’t face sharp trade-offs between learning and other education outputs O.14 21 It’s more complicated than it looks: People act in reaction to the choices of others throughout the system O.15 26 Coherence and alignment toward learning 1.1 39 More schooling is systematically associated with higher wages 1.2 40 Mortality rates in the United States are lower for adults with more education 1.3 43 People with higher education hold stronger beliefs about the importance of democracy 1.4 45 Learning varies widely across countries; in 6 of the 10 countries assessed, only half or fewer of primary completers can read 1.5 46 What matters for growth is learning 1.6 47 Increasing learning would yield major economic benefits B1.3.1 48 There can be a large gap between learning-adjusted and unadjusted years of schooling 2.1 59 School enrollments have shot up in developing countries 2.2 59 Most of the world’s population with less than a primary education is in South Asia, but rates are similar in Sub-Saharan Africa 2.3 60 National income is correlated with the gap between primary and lower secondary completion rates 2.4 61 Lower-income countries are rapidly expanding secondary education at a time when much of their population has not yet completed primary school 2.5 62 School completion is higher for richer and urban families, but gender gaps are more context-dependent 2.6 63 Multiple exclusions: Girls from poor households often have the lowest rates of education attainment S1.1 69 Synapse development over the first 20 years of life 3.1 72 Most grade 6 students in West and Central Africa are not sufficiently competent in reading or mathematics 3.2 72 Most grade 6 students in southern and East Africa are not sufficiently competent in mathematics, and several countries score poorly in reading as well 3.3 73 Learning outcomes are substantially lower for poor children in Latin America B3.2.1 75 Girls outperform boys on reading in all countries and economies, but boys typically do better in mathematics and science 3.4 76 Learning outcomes vary greatly across countries and economies—in several countries, the 75th percentile of PISA test takers performs below the 25th percentile of the OECD average 3.5 77 Middle-income countries tend to have lower rates of literacy proficiency than high-income countries 3.6 77 Reading proficiency is low in many parts of the developing world 3.7 78 Family socioeconomic status significantly affects students’ average PISA scores 3.8 79 The proximate determinants of learning 3.9 79 Socioeconomic gaps in cognitive achievement grow with age—even in preschool years 3.10 81 A lot of official teaching time is lost B3.3.1 82 Teachers’ beliefs about their effort and its effects viii | CONTENTS

3.11 82 Staff compensation consumes the largest share of resources available for public education 3.12 83 Management capacity is low in schools in low- and middle-income countries S2.1 89 Severe deprivation affects brain structure and function from early in life S2.2 89 Risk and protective factors affect developmental trajectories 4.1 95 No internationally comparable data on learning are available for most children outside of high-income countries 4.2 96 Low-performing countries don’t face sharp trade-offs between learning and other education outputs S3.1 103 Cognitive, socioemotional, and technical skills interact S4.1 108 The number of experimental and quasi-experimental studies of interventions to improve learning has mushroomed in recent decades S4.2 109 It’s more complicated than it looks: People act in reaction to the choices of others throughout the system 5.1 114 Investments in high-quality programs during children’s early years pay off 5.2 115 Intense deprivation can impair brain development 5.3 117 Integrated programs through the early years are necessary for proper child development 5.4 118 What happens when school fees are eliminated? Evidence from eight countries 5.5 119 Not all education systems are equally productive, but even the least productive deliver some learning to some learners 5.6 120 Young people follow different paths in their education 5.7 121 Workers with higher literacy proficiency are more likely to enter white-collar jobs 6.1 134 Only a small fraction of learners keeps up with the curriculum 6.2 137 Prospective engineers typically score higher than prospective teachers on PISA tests 7.1 146 Information and communication technology has had a mixed impact on learning 7.2 148 Schools vary significantly in management quality 8.1 155 Few benefit from workplace training, and those who do tend to already have better literacy or education 8.2 157 Most vocational training students enroll during upper secondary school S5.1 165 Technology use has increased dramatically over the past decade— but remains low in many countries 9.1 171 Technical and political barriers pull education systems away from the goal of learning 9.2 173 Simple associations between education spending and learning are weak B9.3.1 178 In Bangladesh, there are 11 different kinds of nonstate providers of presecondary education S6.1 184 Governments devote a large share of their budgets to education S6.2 185 The relationship between changes in public education spending and student learning is often weak 10.1 191 Contradictory interests detract from learning objectives B10.1.1 192 Teacher unionization varies across countries 10.2 195 Interdependencies characterize the relationship between teachers and politicians 11.1 200 Primary school numeracy has increased dramatically in England B11.5.1 205 Reading scores have improved in Chile 11.2 207 Problem-driven iterative adaptation drives successful reforms 11.3 210 Trends in public education spending in the Philippines track changes in the broader political and economic context 11.4 212 Most funding for education comes from domestic sources, but international finance is important for low-income countries CONTENTS | ix

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
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  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St