9 months ago

Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Searching for solutions

Searching for solutions to local problems All systems have some parts that work well; these parts can be used to identify technically and politically feasible approaches to improving learning. In Misiones Province, Argentina, student dropout rates were high. But some schools bucked the trend: teachers agreed on informal learning contracts with parents instead of blaming them for poor student performance. Schools that adopted more constructive approaches to parent-teacher relations saw dropout fall significantly. 42 Schools approach challenges in different ways, so analysis of positive outliers could be useful for policy making (box 11.6). Local innovations, however, may not be enough to close the learning gap between countries. Employing principles from the growing global knowledge can provide useful ideas for improving learning in specific contexts. A more iterative approach to system change can be a way to adapt interventions inspired by global experiences to local contexts. Integrating an iterative and adaptive approach to policy making and implementation Recent examples show how an iterative, adaptive approach can strengthen education systems and improve learning. In India, an experiment showed that grouping children by ability and using levelappropriate teaching along with continual assessment improved students’ reading abilities. Recognizing that a small-scale experiment was no guarantee of success in the government system, Pratham—the NGO responsible for the original evaluation—experimented with different approaches to level-appropriate teaching in government schools. This experimentation tested the assumptions of the original model and identified factors behind the earlier success. It then identified two approaches to implementation that could work at scale. 43 Even in fragile states, where system capabilities are limited, iterative approaches like this have been successful at restoring essential education services (box 11.7). Policy makers can test policies before introducing them more widely. Whole-system reforms are difficult to evaluate because they lack an appropriate counterfactual, making it difficult to trace the impacts of policy change and adapt strategies to improve learning. Small pilots can overcome these difficulties, but it is hard to assess whether they will be effective without the attention and nurturing that can occur in a pilot. As a middle way, China and other countries have tested new policies in specific regions. 44 Policy makers first identify Box 11.6 High-performing schools in the West Bank and Gaza offer some learning lessons The United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) provides over 300,000 refugees in the West Bank and Gaza with basic education services. In multiple rounds of international assessments, UNRWA schools outperformed public schools, delivering the equivalent of one year’s additional learning despite the lower socioeconomic status of UNRWA students and lower per student spending. a Drivers of their better performance include: • Greater parental involvement in school activities and a close partnership between schools, households, and refugee communities, which contributes to a shared sense of purpose and collaborative mechanisms for monitoring and support. • More effective teacher support systems. Teachers are trained using standards that clearly articulate what students should know and be able to do in each grade. Although preservice training is similar in UNRWA and public schools, UNRWA teachers complete a two-year training program in classroom instruction, resulting in teaching approaches that are better aligned with learning. • Assessment and evaluation. UNRWA schools have more rigorous, more frequent student assessments and teacher evaluations than public schools. • Effective school leadership. UNRWA invests in developing qualified principals who can support their teachers effectively. Identifying lessons from high-performing schools is not always easy. Some factors such as school leadership that drive high performance may be idiosyncratic, making them hard to replicate. Drawing on large samples of schools can help identify more generalizable lessons. Source: WDR 2018 team, based on Abdul-Hamid and others (2016). a. This comparison is for UNRWA schools and public schools in Jordan. 208 | World Development Report 2018

Box 11.7 Burundi improved education services by iterating and adapting After a protracted civil war and long peace process in Burundi, a new government and new constitution in 2005 led to a renewed emphasis on public services. Many schools had been destroyed, and management systems had collapsed. As the new government took office, primary net enrollment rates stood at just 56 percent, studentclassroom ratios were 87:1, and 20 students shared a single mathematics textbook on average. The government prioritized reducing the high studenttextbook ratios and delays in delivery as part of a broader rapid-results initiative that had three stages: • Shaping. In this stage, a reform team identified why there were not enough textbooks. To ensure practical solutions, the team comprised stakeholders from across the education system, including provincial education directors and parent-teacher associations. • Implementation. Senior government officials gave the team authority to implement its new approach in a single province. As implementation progressed, the team regularly adjusted its action plan. • Planning for sustainability. After reviewing the intervention’s performance, senior government officials decided how to scale up the program to other provinces. The initiative far exceeded its targets. Textbook availability increased, and average delivery times fell from over a year to 60 days. This success led to similar initiatives to tackle teacher payroll problems, as well as many other service delivery problems beyond education. Source: WDR 2018 team, based on Campos, Randrianarivelo, and Winning (2015). the main problems; then they agree on which solutions to subject to experimentation. They develop proposals for experiments, in part by analyzing solutions adopted in other countries to tackle similar issues, with different regions trying alternatives. Successful policies are then rolled out to other regions. Belgium and the Netherlands have adopted similar approaches. 45 Giving stakeholders the authority and autonomy to adopt such approaches runs counter to how many education agencies operate. Closed systems limit the autonomy of system actors and judge performance based on compliance with formal rules over resource use, leaving little room for innovation. By contrast, more open systems that have a sharper focus on outcomes are more likely to see greater innovation across the education system (table 11.3). 46 Good information systems and broad-based coalitions are also needed A capacity to learn from the implementation of new innovations is vital. Information systems that provide rapid, regular, accurate feedback are crucial for more adaptive approaches to improving learning. Some countries are beginning to build these kinds of capabilities into their education agencies. Peru’s MineduLAB in the Ministry of Education is a collaboration between government agencies and experienced researchers. 47 The lab introduces innovations directly Table 11.3 Principles for encouraging innovation at scale and the roles that actors can play Principles for encouraging innovation and agility in approaches to improving learning • Adopt a more iterative and adaptive approach to the design and implementation of policies. • Identify promising solutions from within the education system, as well as the global knowledge base. • Establish information systems that provide rapid feedback to support implementation. • Develop the capability of education agencies, an enabling environment, and autonomy to encourage innovation. Source: WDR 2018 team. Roles that different system actors can play • Government institutions: Develop an enabling environment and incentives for innovation and a more iterative approach. • Civil society and private sector providers: Experiment with different approaches to improving learning. How to escape low-learning traps | 209

  • Page 6 and 7:

    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

  • Page 8 and 9:

    95 Choose learning metrics based on

  • Page 10 and 11:

    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

  • Page 12 and 13:

    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

  • Page 14 and 15:

    ecause of these shortcomings threat

  • Page 16 and 17:

    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

  • Page 18 and 19:

    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

  • Page 21 and 22:

    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

  • Page 23 and 24:

    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

  • Page 25 and 26:

    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

  • Page 27 and 28:

    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

  • Page 29 and 30:

    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

  • Page 31 and 32:

    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

  • Page 33 and 34:

    methods, and they need to care enou

  • Page 35 and 36:

    often lack the organization, inform

  • Page 37 and 38:

    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

  • Page 39 and 40:

    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

  • Page 41 and 42:

    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

  • Page 43 and 44:

    overlooked. The evidence on success

  • Page 45 and 46:

    consultations that have tried to br

  • Page 47 and 48:

    in regional learning assessments (s

  • Page 49 and 50:

    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

  • Page 51 and 52:

    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

  • Page 53 and 54:

    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

  • Page 55:

    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

  • Page 58 and 59:

    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Education promotes economic growth

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Learning and the promise of educati

  • Page 66 and 67:

    people need a range of skills—cog

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

  • Page 70 and 71:

    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

  • Page 72 and 73:

    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

  • Page 74:

    12757, National Bureau of Economic

  • Page 78 and 79:

    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

  • Page 80 and 81:

    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

  • Page 84 and 85:

    their brightest child to secondary

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

  • Page 88 and 89:

    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

  • Page 90 and 91:

    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

  • Page 98 and 99:

    meeting global development goals wi

  • Page 100 and 101:

    language and cognitive abilities ar

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

  • Page 104 and 105:

    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Learning Community of Practice.”

  • Page 108 and 109:

    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

  • Page 110 and 111:

    early childhood interventions that

  • Page 112 and 113:

    particularly true in low-income cou

  • Page 114 and 115:

    In such contexts, learning metrics

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Learning assessments of key foundat

  • Page 118 and 119:

    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

  • Page 122 and 123:

    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

  • Page 124:

    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

  • Page 128 and 129:

    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

  • Page 130 and 131:

    changes in school leadership, schoo

  • Page 132 and 133:

    5 There is no learning without prep

  • Page 134 and 135:

    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

  • Page 136 and 137:

    etter cognitive development, more p

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

  • Page 142 and 143:

    sometimes mattering more than the e

  • Page 144 and 145:

    and above and indicates the ability

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

  • Page 148 and 149:

    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

  • Page 150 and 151:

    ————. 2017. World Developme

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

  • Page 158 and 159:

    comparable, suggesting similarly la

  • Page 160 and 161:

    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 168 and 169:

    girls. Even beyond building entire

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Pradesh, India, providing community

  • Page 172 and 173:

    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

  • Page 174 and 175:

    8 Build on foundations by linking s

  • Page 176 and 177:

    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

  • Page 178 and 179: or nonprofits with industry-specifi
  • Page 180 and 181: 16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).
  • Page 182 and 183: Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto
  • Page 184 and 185: SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing
  • Page 186 and 187: All of those skills that help indiv
  • Page 189 and 190: PART IV Making the system work for
  • Page 191 and 192: aligned with the overall goal of le
  • Page 193 and 194: many countries they do not routinel
  • Page 195 and 196: thinking, the curriculum alone will
  • Page 197 and 198: Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al
  • Page 199 and 200: financial support in anticipation o
  • Page 201 and 202: Institute for Educational Planning,
  • Page 203 and 204: SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi
  • Page 205 and 206: Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee
  • Page 207 and 208: public investment. A central elemen
  • Page 209 and 210: 10 Unhealthy politics drives misali
  • Page 211 and 212: Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests
  • Page 213 and 214: Box 10.2 How politics can derail le
  • Page 215 and 216: Trapped in low-accountability, low-
  • Page 217 and 218: Educational Research and Innovation
  • Page 219 and 220: 11 How to escape low-learning traps
  • Page 221 and 222: Box 11.1 Using information to align
  • Page 223 and 224: on learning can strengthen incentiv
  • Page 225 and 226: Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build
  • Page 227: education systems effectively requi
  • Page 231 and 232: shift aligned funding with new real
  • Page 233 and 234: Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno
  • Page 235 and 236: Working Paper 21825, National Burea
  • Page 238: ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St