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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Searching for solutions

Searching for solutions to local problems All systems have some parts that work well; these parts can be used to identify technically and politically feasible approaches to improving learning. In Misiones Province, Argentina, student dropout rates were high. But some schools bucked the trend: teachers agreed on informal learning contracts with parents instead of blaming them for poor student performance. Schools that adopted more constructive approaches to parent-teacher relations saw dropout fall significantly. 42 Schools approach challenges in different ways, so analysis of positive outliers could be useful for policy making (box 11.6). Local innovations, however, may not be enough to close the learning gap between countries. Employing principles from the growing global knowledge can provide useful ideas for improving learning in specific contexts. A more iterative approach to system change can be a way to adapt interventions inspired by global experiences to local contexts. Integrating an iterative and adaptive approach to policy making and implementation Recent examples show how an iterative, adaptive approach can strengthen education systems and improve learning. In India, an experiment showed that grouping children by ability and using levelappropriate teaching along with continual assessment improved students’ reading abilities. Recognizing that a small-scale experiment was no guarantee of success in the government system, Pratham—the NGO responsible for the original evaluation—experimented with different approaches to level-appropriate teaching in government schools. This experimentation tested the assumptions of the original model and identified factors behind the earlier success. It then identified two approaches to implementation that could work at scale. 43 Even in fragile states, where system capabilities are limited, iterative approaches like this have been successful at restoring essential education services (box 11.7). Policy makers can test policies before introducing them more widely. Whole-system reforms are difficult to evaluate because they lack an appropriate counterfactual, making it difficult to trace the impacts of policy change and adapt strategies to improve learning. Small pilots can overcome these difficulties, but it is hard to assess whether they will be effective without the attention and nurturing that can occur in a pilot. As a middle way, China and other countries have tested new policies in specific regions. 44 Policy makers first identify Box 11.6 High-performing schools in the West Bank and Gaza offer some learning lessons The United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) provides over 300,000 refugees in the West Bank and Gaza with basic education services. In multiple rounds of international assessments, UNRWA schools outperformed public schools, delivering the equivalent of one year’s additional learning despite the lower socioeconomic status of UNRWA students and lower per student spending. a Drivers of their better performance include: • Greater parental involvement in school activities and a close partnership between schools, households, and refugee communities, which contributes to a shared sense of purpose and collaborative mechanisms for monitoring and support. • More effective teacher support systems. Teachers are trained using standards that clearly articulate what students should know and be able to do in each grade. Although preservice training is similar in UNRWA and public schools, UNRWA teachers complete a two-year training program in classroom instruction, resulting in teaching approaches that are better aligned with learning. • Assessment and evaluation. UNRWA schools have more rigorous, more frequent student assessments and teacher evaluations than public schools. • Effective school leadership. UNRWA invests in developing qualified principals who can support their teachers effectively. Identifying lessons from high-performing schools is not always easy. Some factors such as school leadership that drive high performance may be idiosyncratic, making them hard to replicate. Drawing on large samples of schools can help identify more generalizable lessons. Source: WDR 2018 team, based on Abdul-Hamid and others (2016). a. This comparison is for UNRWA schools and public schools in Jordan. 208 | World Development Report 2018

Box 11.7 Burundi improved education services by iterating and adapting After a protracted civil war and long peace process in Burundi, a new government and new constitution in 2005 led to a renewed emphasis on public services. Many schools had been destroyed, and management systems had collapsed. As the new government took office, primary net enrollment rates stood at just 56 percent, studentclassroom ratios were 87:1, and 20 students shared a single mathematics textbook on average. The government prioritized reducing the high studenttextbook ratios and delays in delivery as part of a broader rapid-results initiative that had three stages: • Shaping. In this stage, a reform team identified why there were not enough textbooks. To ensure practical solutions, the team comprised stakeholders from across the education system, including provincial education directors and parent-teacher associations. • Implementation. Senior government officials gave the team authority to implement its new approach in a single province. As implementation progressed, the team regularly adjusted its action plan. • Planning for sustainability. After reviewing the intervention’s performance, senior government officials decided how to scale up the program to other provinces. The initiative far exceeded its targets. Textbook availability increased, and average delivery times fell from over a year to 60 days. This success led to similar initiatives to tackle teacher payroll problems, as well as many other service delivery problems beyond education. Source: WDR 2018 team, based on Campos, Randrianarivelo, and Winning (2015). the main problems; then they agree on which solutions to subject to experimentation. They develop proposals for experiments, in part by analyzing solutions adopted in other countries to tackle similar issues, with different regions trying alternatives. Successful policies are then rolled out to other regions. Belgium and the Netherlands have adopted similar approaches. 45 Giving stakeholders the authority and autonomy to adopt such approaches runs counter to how many education agencies operate. Closed systems limit the autonomy of system actors and judge performance based on compliance with formal rules over resource use, leaving little room for innovation. By contrast, more open systems that have a sharper focus on outcomes are more likely to see greater innovation across the education system (table 11.3). 46 Good information systems and broad-based coalitions are also needed A capacity to learn from the implementation of new innovations is vital. Information systems that provide rapid, regular, accurate feedback are crucial for more adaptive approaches to improving learning. Some countries are beginning to build these kinds of capabilities into their education agencies. Peru’s MineduLAB in the Ministry of Education is a collaboration between government agencies and experienced researchers. 47 The lab introduces innovations directly Table 11.3 Principles for encouraging innovation at scale and the roles that actors can play Principles for encouraging innovation and agility in approaches to improving learning • Adopt a more iterative and adaptive approach to the design and implementation of policies. • Identify promising solutions from within the education system, as well as the global knowledge base. • Establish information systems that provide rapid feedback to support implementation. • Develop the capability of education agencies, an enabling environment, and autonomy to encourage innovation. Source: WDR 2018 team. Roles that different system actors can play • Government institutions: Develop an enabling environment and incentives for innovation and a more iterative approach. • Civil society and private sector providers: Experiment with different approaches to improving learning. How to escape low-learning traps | 209

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    © 2018 International Bank for Reco

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    95 Choose learning metrics based on

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    O.6 9 School completion is higher f

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    Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity

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    ecause of these shortcomings threat

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    xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g

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    xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat

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    Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s

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    Figure O.3 Children from poor house

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    Figure O.6 School completion is hig

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    Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co

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    methods, and they need to care enou

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    often lack the organization, inform

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    Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf

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    FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie

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    Figure O.14 It’s more complicated

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    overlooked. The evidence on success

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    consultations that have tried to br

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    in regional learning assessments (s

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    75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);

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    Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro

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    Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su

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    Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai

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    1 Schooling, learning, and the prom

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    Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital

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    Education promotes economic growth

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    Learning and the promise of educati

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    people need a range of skills—cog

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    Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across

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    74. For OECD countries, see Heckman

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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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