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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Learning to realize education’s promise Assess learning Act on evidence Align actors to make it a serious goal to make schools work for all learners to make the whole system work for learning

OVERVIEW Learning to realize education’s promise “Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world.” NELSON MANDELA (2003) “ If your plan is for one year, plant rice. If your plan is for ten years, plant trees. If your plan is for one hundred years, educate children.” KUAN CHUNG (7TH CENTURY BC) Schooling is not the same as learning. In Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, when grade 3 students were asked recently to read a sentence such as “The name of the dog is Puppy,” three-quarters did not understand what it said. 1 In rural India, just under three-quarters of students in grade 3 could not solve a two-digit subtraction such as 46 – 17, and by grade 5 half could still not do so. 2 Although the skills of Brazilian 15-year-olds have improved, at their current rate of improvement they won’t reach the richcountry average score in math for 75 years. In reading, it will take more than 260 years. 3 Within countries, learning outcomes are almost always much worse for the disadvantaged. In Uruguay, poor children in grade 6 are assessed as “not competent” in math at five times the rate of wealthy children. 4 Moreover, such data are for children and youth lucky enough to be in school. Some 260 million aren’t even enrolled in primary or secondary school. 5 These countries are not unique in the challenges they face. (In fact, they deserve credit for measuring student learning and making the results public.) Worldwide, hundreds of millions of children reach young adulthood without even the most basic life skills. Even if they attend school, many leave without the skills for calculating the correct change from a transaction, reading a doctor’s instructions, or interpreting a campaign promise—let alone building a fulfilling career or educating their children. This learning crisis is a moral crisis. When delivered well, education cures a host of societal ills. For individuals, it promotes employment, earnings, health, and poverty reduction. For societies, it spurs innovation, strengthens institutions, and fosters social cohesion. But these benefits depend largely on learning. Schooling without learning is a wasted opportunity. More than that, it is a great injustice: the children whom society is failing most are the ones who most need a good education to succeed in life. Any country can do better if it acts as though learning really matters. That may sound obvious—after all, what else is education for? Yet even as learning goals are receiving greater rhetorical support, in practice many features of education systems conspire against learning. This Report argues that countries can improve by advancing on three fronts: • Assess learning—to make it a serious goal. This means using well-designed student assessments to gauge the health of education systems (not primarily as tools for administering rewards and punishments). It also means using the resulting Overview | 3

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
  • Page 8 and 9: 95 Choose learning metrics based on
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  • Page 21: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin

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    12757, National Bureau of Economic

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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St