8 months ago

Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Figure O.5 The

Figure O.5 The percentage of primary school students who pass a minimum proficiency threshold is often low Median percentage of students in late primary school who score above a minimum proficiency level on a learning assessment, by income group and region 100 80 Percent 60 40 20 0 Lowincome countries Lower-middleincome countries Upper-middleincome countries Highincome countries Mathematics Sub-Saharan Africa Reading Middle East and North Africa Latin America and the Caribbean East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia Source: WDR 2018 team, using “A Global Data Set on Education Quality” (2017), made available to the team by Nadir Altinok, Noam Angrist, and Harry Anthony Patrinos. Data at /WDR2018-Fig_O-5. Note: Bars show the unweighted cross-country median within country grouping. Regional averages exclude high-income countries. India and China are among the countries excluded for lack of data. Minimum proficiency in mathematics is benchmarked to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessment and in reading to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) assessment. Minimum proficiency in mathematics means that students have some basic mathematical knowledge such as adding or subtracting whole numbers, recognizing familiar geometric shapes, and reading simple graphs and tables (Mullis and others 2016). Minimum proficiency in reading means that students can locate and retrieve explicitly stated detail when reading literary texts and can locate and reproduce explicitly stated information from the beginning of informational texts (Mullis and others 2012). Because of this slow progress, more than 60 percent of primary school children in developing countries still fail to achieve minimum proficiency in learning, according to one benchmark. No single learning assessment has been administered in all countries, but combining data from learning assessments in 95 countries makes it possible to establish a globally comparable “minimum proficiency” threshold in math. 22 Below this threshold, students have not mastered even basic mathematical skills, whether making simple computations with whole numbers, using fractions or measurements, or interpreting simple bar graphs. In high-income countries, nearly all students—99 percent in Japan, 98 percent in Norway, 91 percent in Australia—achieve this level in primary school. 23 But in other parts of the world the share is much lower: just 7 percent in Mali, 30 percent in Nicaragua, 34 percent in the Philippines, and 76 percent in Mexico. In lowincome countries, 14 percent of students reach this level near the end of primary school, and in lowermiddle-income countries 37 percent do (figure O.5). Even in upper-middle-income countries only 61 percent reach this minimum proficiency. The ultimate barrier to learning is no schooling at all—yet hundreds of millions of youth remain out of school. In 2016, 61 million children of primary school age—10 percent of all children in low- and lowermiddle-income countries—were not in school, along with 202 million children of secondary school age. 24 Children in fragile and conflict-affected countries accounted for just over a third of these, a disproportionate share. In the Syrian Arab Republic, which achieved universal primary enrollment in 2000, the civil war had driven 1.8 million children out of school by 2013. 25 Almost all developing countries still have pockets of children from excluded social groups who do not attend school. Poverty most consistently predicts failing to complete schooling, but other characteristics such as gender, disability, caste, and ethnicity also frequently contribute to school participation shortfalls (figure O.6). But it’s not just poverty and conflict that keep children out of school; the learning crisis does, too. When poor parents perceive education to be of low quality, they are less willing to sacrifice to keep their children in school—a rational response, given the constraints they face. 26 Although parental perceptions of school quality depend on various factors, from the physical condition of schools to teacher punctuality, parents consistently cite student learning outcomes 8 | World Development Report 2018

Figure O.6 School completion is higher for richer and urban families, but gender gaps are more context-dependent Gaps in grade 6 completion rates (percent) for 15- to 19-year-olds, by wealth, location, and gender Percentage point gap between richest and poorest quintiles 80 60 40 20 0 −20 a. Richest–poorest Percentage point gap between urban and rural 80 60 40 20 0 −20 b. Urban–rural Percentage point gap between male and female 80 60 40 20 0 −20 c. Male–female 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Source: WDR 2018 team, using data from Filmer (2016). Data at Note: The data presented are the latest available by country, 2005–14. Each vertical line indicates the size and direction of the gap for a country. as a critical component. 27 These outcomes can affect behavior: holding student ability constant, students in the Arab Republic of Egypt who attended poorerperforming schools were more likely to drop out. 28 Learning shortfalls during the school years eventually show up as weak skills in the workforce. Thus the job skills debate reflects the learning crisis. Work skill shortages are often discussed in a way that is disconnected from the debate on learning, but the two are parts of the same problem. Because education systems have not prepared workers adequately, many enter the labor force with inadequate skills. Measuring adult skills in the workplace is hard, but recent initiatives have assessed a range of skills in the adult populations of numerous countries. They found that even foundational skills such as literacy and numeracy are often low, let alone the more advanced skills. The problem isn’t just a lack of trained workers; it is a lack of readily trainable workers. Accordingly, many workers end up in jobs that require minimal amounts of reading or math. 29 Lack of skills reduces job quality, earnings, and labor mobility. The skills needed in labor markets are multidimensional, so systems need to equip students with far more than just reading, writing, and math—but students cannot leapfrog these foundational skills. Whether as workers or members of society, people also need higher-order cognitive skills such as problem-solving. In addition, they need socioemotional skills—sometimes called soft or noncognitive skills—such as conscientiousness. Finally, they need technical skills to perform a specific job. That said, the foundational cognitive skills are essential, and systems cannot bypass the challenges of developing them as they target higher-order skills. Tackling the learning crisis and skills gaps requires diagnosing their causes—both their immediate causes at the school level and their deeper systemic drivers. Given all the investments countries have made in education, shortfalls in learning are discouraging. But one reason for them is that learning has not always received the attention it should have. As a result, stakeholders lack actionable information about what is going wrong in their schools and in the broader society, and so they cannot craft context-appropriate responses to improve learning. Acting effectively requires first understanding how schools are failing learners and how systems are failing schools. Schools are failing learners Struggling education systems lack one or more of four key school-level ingredients for learning: prepared learners, effective teaching, learningfocused inputs, and the skilled management and governance that pulls them all together (figure O.7). The next section looks at why these links Problem dimension 2: break down; here the focus is on how Immediate they break down. causes First, children often arrive in school unprepared to learn—if they arrive at all. Malnutrition, illness, low parental investments, and the harsh environments associated Overview | 9

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
  • Page 8 and 9: 95 Choose learning metrics based on
  • Page 10 and 11: O.6 9 School completion is higher f
  • Page 12 and 13: Map B6.3.1 135 Linguistic diversity
  • Page 14 and 15: ecause of these shortcomings threat
  • Page 16 and 17: xiv | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The team is g
  • Page 18 and 19: xvi | ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ousmane Dione
  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 23 and 24: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
  • Page 25 and 26: Figure O.1 Shortfalls in learning s
  • Page 27: Figure O.3 Children from poor house
  • Page 31 and 32: Figure O.8 Socioeconomic gaps in co
  • Page 33 and 34: methods, and they need to care enou
  • Page 35 and 36: often lack the organization, inform
  • Page 37 and 38: Figure O.12 Many countries lack inf
  • Page 39 and 40: FIGURE O.13 Low-performing countrie
  • Page 41 and 42: Figure O.14 It’s more complicated
  • Page 43 and 44: overlooked. The evidence on success
  • Page 45 and 46: consultations that have tried to br
  • Page 47 and 48: in regional learning assessments (s
  • Page 49 and 50: 75. Duflo, Hanna, and Ryan (2012);
  • Page 51 and 52: Research Triangle Park, NC: Centro
  • Page 53 and 54: Levitt, Steven D., John A. List, Su
  • Page 55: Adolescents Are Out of School as Ai
  • Page 58 and 59: 1 Schooling, learning, and the prom
  • Page 60 and 61: Box 1.1 Schooling as human capital
  • Page 62 and 63: Education promotes economic growth
  • Page 64 and 65: Learning and the promise of educati
  • Page 66 and 67: people need a range of skills—cog
  • Page 68 and 69: Box 1.3 Comparing attainment across
  • Page 70 and 71: 74. For OECD countries, see Heckman
  • Page 72 and 73: Evidence from Kenya.” NBER Workin
  • Page 74: 12757, National Bureau of Economic
  • Page 78 and 79:

    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

  • Page 80 and 81:

    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

  • Page 84 and 85:

    their brightest child to secondary

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

  • Page 88 and 89:

    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

  • Page 90 and 91:

    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

  • Page 98 and 99:

    meeting global development goals wi

  • Page 100 and 101:

    language and cognitive abilities ar

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

  • Page 104 and 105:

    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Learning Community of Practice.”

  • Page 108 and 109:

    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

  • Page 110 and 111:

    early childhood interventions that

  • Page 112 and 113:

    particularly true in low-income cou

  • Page 114 and 115:

    In such contexts, learning metrics

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Learning assessments of key foundat

  • Page 118 and 119:

    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

  • Page 122 and 123:

    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

  • Page 124:

    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

  • Page 128 and 129:

    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

  • Page 130 and 131:

    changes in school leadership, schoo

  • Page 132 and 133:

    5 There is no learning without prep

  • Page 134 and 135:

    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

  • Page 136 and 137:

    etter cognitive development, more p

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

  • Page 142 and 143:

    sometimes mattering more than the e

  • Page 144 and 145:

    and above and indicates the ability

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

  • Page 148 and 149:

    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

  • Page 150 and 151:

    ————. 2017. World Developme

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 154 and 155:

    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

  • Page 158 and 159:

    comparable, suggesting similarly la

  • Page 160 and 161:

    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

  • Page 168 and 169:

    girls. Even beyond building entire

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Pradesh, India, providing community

  • Page 172 and 173:

    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

  • Page 174 and 175:

    8 Build on foundations by linking s

  • Page 176 and 177:

    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

  • Page 178 and 179:

    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

  • Page 180 and 181:

    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

  • Page 182 and 183:

    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

  • Page 184 and 185:

    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

  • Page 186 and 187:

    All of those skills that help indiv

  • Page 189 and 190:

    PART IV Making the system work for

  • Page 191 and 192:

    aligned with the overall goal of le

  • Page 193 and 194:

    many countries they do not routinel

  • Page 195 and 196:

    thinking, the curriculum alone will

  • Page 197 and 198:

    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

  • Page 199 and 200:

    financial support in anticipation o

  • Page 201 and 202:

    Institute for Educational Planning,

  • Page 203 and 204:

    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

  • Page 205 and 206:

    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

  • Page 207 and 208:

    public investment. A central elemen

  • Page 209 and 210:

    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

  • Page 211 and 212:

    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

  • Page 213 and 214:

    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

  • Page 215 and 216:

    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

  • Page 217 and 218:

    Educational Research and Innovation

  • Page 219 and 220:

    11 How to escape low-learning traps

  • Page 221 and 222:

    Box 11.1 Using information to align

  • Page 223 and 224:

    on learning can strengthen incentiv

  • Page 225 and 226:

    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

  • Page 227 and 228:

    education systems effectively requi

  • Page 229 and 230:

    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

  • Page 231 and 232:

    shift aligned funding with new real

  • Page 233 and 234:

    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

  • Page 235 and 236:

    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

  • Page 238:

    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St