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Brasil só deve dominar Leitura em 260 anos, aponta estudo do Banco Mundial Relatorio Banco Mundial _Learning

Figure O.5 The

Figure O.5 The percentage of primary school students who pass a minimum proficiency threshold is often low Median percentage of students in late primary school who score above a minimum proficiency level on a learning assessment, by income group and region 100 80 Percent 60 40 20 0 Lowincome countries Lower-middleincome countries Upper-middleincome countries Highincome countries Mathematics Sub-Saharan Africa Reading Middle East and North Africa Latin America and the Caribbean East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia Source: WDR 2018 team, using “A Global Data Set on Education Quality” (2017), made available to the team by Nadir Altinok, Noam Angrist, and Harry Anthony Patrinos. Data at http://bit.do /WDR2018-Fig_O-5. Note: Bars show the unweighted cross-country median within country grouping. Regional averages exclude high-income countries. India and China are among the countries excluded for lack of data. Minimum proficiency in mathematics is benchmarked to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessment and in reading to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) assessment. Minimum proficiency in mathematics means that students have some basic mathematical knowledge such as adding or subtracting whole numbers, recognizing familiar geometric shapes, and reading simple graphs and tables (Mullis and others 2016). Minimum proficiency in reading means that students can locate and retrieve explicitly stated detail when reading literary texts and can locate and reproduce explicitly stated information from the beginning of informational texts (Mullis and others 2012). Because of this slow progress, more than 60 percent of primary school children in developing countries still fail to achieve minimum proficiency in learning, according to one benchmark. No single learning assessment has been administered in all countries, but combining data from learning assessments in 95 countries makes it possible to establish a globally comparable “minimum proficiency” threshold in math. 22 Below this threshold, students have not mastered even basic mathematical skills, whether making simple computations with whole numbers, using fractions or measurements, or interpreting simple bar graphs. In high-income countries, nearly all students—99 percent in Japan, 98 percent in Norway, 91 percent in Australia—achieve this level in primary school. 23 But in other parts of the world the share is much lower: just 7 percent in Mali, 30 percent in Nicaragua, 34 percent in the Philippines, and 76 percent in Mexico. In lowincome countries, 14 percent of students reach this level near the end of primary school, and in lowermiddle-income countries 37 percent do (figure O.5). Even in upper-middle-income countries only 61 percent reach this minimum proficiency. The ultimate barrier to learning is no schooling at all—yet hundreds of millions of youth remain out of school. In 2016, 61 million children of primary school age—10 percent of all children in low- and lowermiddle-income countries—were not in school, along with 202 million children of secondary school age. 24 Children in fragile and conflict-affected countries accounted for just over a third of these, a disproportionate share. In the Syrian Arab Republic, which achieved universal primary enrollment in 2000, the civil war had driven 1.8 million children out of school by 2013. 25 Almost all developing countries still have pockets of children from excluded social groups who do not attend school. Poverty most consistently predicts failing to complete schooling, but other characteristics such as gender, disability, caste, and ethnicity also frequently contribute to school participation shortfalls (figure O.6). But it’s not just poverty and conflict that keep children out of school; the learning crisis does, too. When poor parents perceive education to be of low quality, they are less willing to sacrifice to keep their children in school—a rational response, given the constraints they face. 26 Although parental perceptions of school quality depend on various factors, from the physical condition of schools to teacher punctuality, parents consistently cite student learning outcomes 8 | World Development Report 2018

Figure O.6 School completion is higher for richer and urban families, but gender gaps are more context-dependent Gaps in grade 6 completion rates (percent) for 15- to 19-year-olds, by wealth, location, and gender Percentage point gap between richest and poorest quintiles 80 60 40 20 0 −20 a. Richest–poorest Percentage point gap between urban and rural 80 60 40 20 0 −20 b. Urban–rural Percentage point gap between male and female 80 60 40 20 0 −20 c. Male–female 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60 80 100 Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Overall grade 6 completion rate (%) Source: WDR 2018 team, using data from Filmer (2016). Data at http://bit.do/WDR2018-Fig_O-6. Note: The data presented are the latest available by country, 2005–14. Each vertical line indicates the size and direction of the gap for a country. as a critical component. 27 These outcomes can affect behavior: holding student ability constant, students in the Arab Republic of Egypt who attended poorerperforming schools were more likely to drop out. 28 Learning shortfalls during the school years eventually show up as weak skills in the workforce. Thus the job skills debate reflects the learning crisis. Work skill shortages are often discussed in a way that is disconnected from the debate on learning, but the two are parts of the same problem. Because education systems have not prepared workers adequately, many enter the labor force with inadequate skills. Measuring adult skills in the workplace is hard, but recent initiatives have assessed a range of skills in the adult populations of numerous countries. They found that even foundational skills such as literacy and numeracy are often low, let alone the more advanced skills. The problem isn’t just a lack of trained workers; it is a lack of readily trainable workers. Accordingly, many workers end up in jobs that require minimal amounts of reading or math. 29 Lack of skills reduces job quality, earnings, and labor mobility. The skills needed in labor markets are multidimensional, so systems need to equip students with far more than just reading, writing, and math—but students cannot leapfrog these foundational skills. Whether as workers or members of society, people also need higher-order cognitive skills such as problem-solving. In addition, they need socioemotional skills—sometimes called soft or noncognitive skills—such as conscientiousness. Finally, they need technical skills to perform a specific job. That said, the foundational cognitive skills are essential, and systems cannot bypass the challenges of developing them as they target higher-order skills. Tackling the learning crisis and skills gaps requires diagnosing their causes—both their immediate causes at the school level and their deeper systemic drivers. Given all the investments countries have made in education, shortfalls in learning are discouraging. But one reason for them is that learning has not always received the attention it should have. As a result, stakeholders lack actionable information about what is going wrong in their schools and in the broader society, and so they cannot craft context-appropriate responses to improve learning. Acting effectively requires first understanding how schools are failing learners and how systems are failing schools. Schools are failing learners Struggling education systems lack one or more of four key school-level ingredients for learning: prepared learners, effective teaching, learningfocused inputs, and the skilled management and governance that pulls them all together (figure O.7). The next section looks at why these links Problem dimension 2: break down; here the focus is on how Immediate they break down. causes First, children often arrive in school unprepared to learn—if they arrive at all. Malnutrition, illness, low parental investments, and the harsh environments associated Overview | 9

  • Page 6 and 7: © 2018 International Bank for Reco
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  • Page 21 and 22: OVERVIEW Learning to realize educat
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    2 Thegreatschooling expansion—and

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    Figure 2.3 Nationalincomeis correla

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    Box 2.1 Accessdenied:Theeffectsoffr

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    their brightest child to secondary

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    Hanushek, Eric A., and Ludger Woess

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    SPOTLIGHT1 Thebiologyoflearning Res

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    outcomes. Finally, intense stress o

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    Figure 3.1 Mostgrade6studentsinWest

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    Box 3.1 Thosewhocan’treadbytheend

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    Figure 3.4 Learningoutcomesvarygrea

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    meeting global development goals wi

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    language and cognitive abilities ar

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    Box 3.3 Teachersmayperceiveloweffor

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    13. UNESCO (2015). 14. Filmer, Hasa

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    Learning Community of Practice.”

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    SPOTLIGHT2 Povertyhindersbiological

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    early childhood interventions that

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    particularly true in low-income cou

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    In such contexts, learning metrics

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    Learning assessments of key foundat

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    technical challenges. 54 Ex ante li

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    Heckman, James J., Rodrigo Pinto, a

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    SPOTLIGHT3 Themultidimensionality o

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    Notes 1. Schönfeld (2017). 2. For

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    SPOTLIGHT 4 Learning about learning

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    changes in school leadership, schoo

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    5 There is no learning without prep

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    FIGURE 5.1 It pays to invest in hig

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    etter cognitive development, more p

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    Box 5.2 Communities can leverage th

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    Box 5.3 Providing information on ch

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    sometimes mattering more than the e

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    and above and indicates the ability

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    Carneiro, Pedro, Flavio Cunha, and

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    from Poor Rural Areas Go to High Sc

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    ————. 2017. World Developme

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    Table 6.1 Models of human behavior

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    Figure 6.1 Only a small fraction of

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    Box 6.3 Reaching learners in their

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    comparable, suggesting similarly la

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    19. He, Linden, and MacLeod (2008,

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    Harris-Van Keuren, Christine, and I

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    Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Sil

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    Table 7.1 Models of human behavior

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    girls. Even beyond building entire

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    Pradesh, India, providing community

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    from a Randomized Experiment in Ecu

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    8 Build on foundations by linking s

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    on their effectiveness is scant. Ev

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    or nonprofits with industry-specifi

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    16. Aubery, Giles, and Sahn (2017).

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    Fares, Jean, and Olga Susana Puerto

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    SPOTLIGHT 5 Technology is changing

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    All of those skills that help indiv

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    PART IV Making the system work for

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    aligned with the overall goal of le

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    many countries they do not routinel

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    thinking, the curriculum alone will

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    Box 9.3 Can private schooling be al

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    financial support in anticipation o

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    Institute for Educational Planning,

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    SPOTLIGHT 6 Spending more or spendi

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    Figure S6.2 The relationship betwee

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    public investment. A central elemen

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    10 Unhealthy politics drives misali

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    Figure 10.1 Contradictory interests

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    Box 10.2 How politics can derail le

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    Trapped in low-accountability, low-

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    Educational Research and Innovation

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    11 How to escape low-learning traps

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    Box 11.1 Using information to align

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    on learning can strengthen incentiv

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    Box 11.4 Using “labs” to build

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    education systems effectively requi

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    Box 11.7 Burundi improved education

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    shift aligned funding with new real

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    Notes 1. Cassen, McNally, and Vigno

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    Working Paper 21825, National Burea

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    ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits St