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assistants as policy thinkers at times would require. From 5 to 7.5 percent of all students attended these "real schools," learning in a superficial fashion how to think in context, but mostly learning how to manage materials, men, and situations—to be problem solvers. This group would also staff the various policing functions of the state, bringing order to the domain. Finally, at the bottom of the pile, a group between 92 and 94 percent of the population attended "people’s schools" where they learned obedience, cooperation and correct attitudes, along with rudiments of literacy and official state myths of history. This universal system of compulsion schooling was up and running by 1819, and soon became the eighth wonder of the world, promising for a brief time—in spite of its exclusionary layered structure—liberal education for all. But this early dream was soon abandoned. This particular utopia had a different target than human equality; it aimed instead for frictionless efficiency. From its inception Volksschulen, the people’s place, heavily discounted reading; reading produced dissatisfaction, it was thought. The Bell-school remedy was called for: a standard of virtual illiteracy formally taught under state church auspices. Reading offered too many windows onto better lives, too much familiarity with better ways of thinking. It was a gift unwise to share with those permanently consigned to low station. Heinrich Pestalozzi, an odd 2 Swiss-German school reformer, was producing at this time a nonliterary, experience-based pedagogy, strong in music and industrial arts, which was attracting much favorable attention in Prussia. Here seemed a way to keep the poor happy without arousing in them hopes of dramatically changing the social order. Pestalozzi claimed ability to mold the poor "to accept all the efforts peculiar to their class." He offered them love in place of ambition. By employing psychological means in the training of the young, class warfare might be avoided. A curiously prophetic note for the future development of scientific school teaching was that Pestalozzi himself could barely read. Not that he was a dummy; those talents simply weren’t important in his work. He reckoned his own semiliteracy an advantage in dealing with children destined not to find employment requiring much verbal fluency. Seventeen agents of the Prussian government acted as Pestalozzi’s assistants in Switzerland, bringing insights about the Swiss style of schooling home to northern Germany. While Pestalozzi’s raggedy schools lurched clumsily from year to year, a nobleman, von Fellenberg, refined and systematized the Swiss reformer’s disorderly notes, hammering the funky ensemble into clarified plans for a worldwide system of industrial education for the masses. As early as 1808, this nonacademic formulation was introduced into the United States under Joseph Neef, formerly a teacher at Pestalozzi’s school. Neef, with important Quaker patronage, became the principal schoolmaster for Robert Owen’s pioneering work-utopia at New Harmony, Indiana. Neef’s efforts there provided high-powered conversational fodder to the fashionable Unitarian drawing rooms of Boston in the decades before compulsory legislation was passed. And when it did pass, all credit for the political victory belonged to those Unitarians. Neef’s influence resonated across the United States after the collapse of New Harmony, through Table of Contents Page 168

lectures given by Robert Owen’s son (later a congressman, then referee of J.P. Morgan’s legal contretemps with the U.S. Army 3 ), and through speeches and intrigues by that magnificent nineteenth-century female dynamo Scottish émigré Fanny Wright, who demanded the end of family life and its replacement by communitarian schooling. The tapestry of school origins is one of paths crossing and recrossing, and more apparent coincidences than seem likely. Together, Owen and Wright created the successful Workingman’s Party of Philadelphia, which seized political control of that city in 1829. The party incorporated strong compulsion schooling proposals as part of its political platform. Its idea to place working-class children under the philosophical discipline of highly skilled craftsmen—men comparable socially to the yeomanry of pre-enclosure England—would have attracted favorable commentary in Philadelphia where banker Nicholas Biddle was locked in struggle for control of the nation’s currency with workingclass hero Andrew Jackson. Biddle’s defeat by Jackson quickly moved abstract discussions of a possible social technology to control working class children from the airy realms of social hypothesis to policy discussions about immediate reality. In that instant of maximum tension between an embryonic financial capitalism and a populist republic struggling to emerge, the Prussian system of pedagogy came to seem perfectly sensible to men of means and ambition. 1 I’ve exaggerated the neatness of this tripartite division in order to make clear its functional logic. The system as it actually grew in those days without an electronic technology of centralization was more whimsical than I’ve indicated, dependent partially on local tradition and resistance, partially on the ebb and flow of fortunes among different participants in the transformation. In some places, the "academy" portion didn’t occur in a separate institution, but as a division inside the Realsschulen, something like today’s "gifted and talented honors" programs as compared to the common garden variety "gifted and talented" pony shows. 2 Pestalozzi’s strangeness comes through in almost all the standard biographical sketches of him, despite universal efforts to emphasize his saintliness. In a recent study, Anthony Sutton claims Pestalozzi was also director of a secret lodge of "illuminated" Freemasonry—with the code name "Alfred." If true, the Swiss "educator" was even stranger than I sensed initially. 3 During the Civil War, Morgan sold back to the army its own defective rifles (which had been auctioned as scrap) at a 1,300 percent profit. After a number of soldiers were killed and maimed, young Morgan found himself temporarily in hot water. Thanks to Owen his penalty was the return of about half his profit! Travelers' Reports Information about Prussian schooling was brought to America by a series of travelers’reports published in the early nineteenth century. First was the report of John Griscom, whose book A Year in Europe (1819) highly praised the new Prussian schools. Griscom was read and admired by Thomas Jefferson and leading Americans whose intellectual patronage drew admirers into the net. Pestalozzi came into the center of focus at about the same time through the letters of William Woodbridge to The American Journal of Education, letters which examined this strange man and his "humane" methods through friendly eyes. Another important chapter in this school buildup came from Henry Dwight, 1 whose Travels in North Germany (1825) praised the new Table of Contents Page 169

  • Page 1 and 2:

    An Underground History of American

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    Change Agents Infiltrate ..........

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    The Ford System And The Kronstadt C

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    Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..

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    Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog

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    combines, is there anything public

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    As I traveled, I discovered a unive

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    He drew... the things inside that n

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    questions or on their implication;

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    and I, in a dark time when all offi

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    history, embedded in a personal ess

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    Then, too, many Americans came out

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    difference between Americans and ev

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    war. [House was nine at the time.]

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    fine-tuned judgments every day they

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    2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to

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    the philosophical split which infor

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    scientific form became the main ecc

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    inventors and technicians without p

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    How Hindu Schooling Came To America

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    way to awaken intellect in the lowe

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    Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha

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    liberty. Farragut When I was a scho

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    Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born

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    prudential matters, both private an

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    discovered some of my faults, and c

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    friend, described Washington as a y

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    school and was well on his way to i

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    teaching "why it was unworthy of hi

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    more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c

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    1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe

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    mimic the "due process" practice of

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    An Enclosure Movement For Children

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    superintendents were wise to the fa

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    state, but that was a radical contr

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    oth parents from home and deposited

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    and file of homeschoolers actually

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    mental reflection in a way schoolbo

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    Department, 80 percent of the incar

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    scores then creates the illusion th

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    spiritual longings of ordinary peop

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    molecular biology. There you have i

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    The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba

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    to represent sounds of their langua

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    arose to satisfy demand for a popul

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    point of a sharpened pencil into th

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    learning to read it was not necessa

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    The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma

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    some bit of data. The sheer luxury

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    the total victory of whole-word rea

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    My own motive in being there was a

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    Such behavior provides the best exc

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    inventor of a reading system based

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    Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt

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    Hector Isn't The Problem The countr

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    "The only way you can squeak throug

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    documents were destroyed at the dis

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    Think of this thing for the moment

  • Page 117 and 118: My own school fell victim to a poli
  • Page 119 and 120: Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un
  • Page 121 and 122: Because of the predictable greed em
  • Page 123 and 124: neighbor to the community for the f
  • Page 125 and 126: and counting sticks (much as the Ar
  • Page 127 and 128: last quarter of the nineteenth cent
  • Page 129 and 130: too seriously. From it poured an ab
  • Page 131 and 132: attitude.... Much new educational l
  • Page 133 and 134: Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide
  • Page 135 and 136: Books give children "false ideals o
  • Page 137 and 138: other of novelist Henry James. Jame
  • Page 139 and 140: Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to
  • Page 141 and 142: church sociables and teachers’ co
  • Page 143 and 144: Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every
  • Page 145 and 146: flagrant opposition to the dominant
  • Page 147 and 148: Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin
  • Page 149 and 150: compulsion law intended to put chil
  • Page 151 and 152: extraordinary vision of the learned
  • Page 153 and 154: Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt
  • Page 155 and 156: Evil, only bad attitudes, and those
  • Page 157 and 158: Rainey Harper, president of the Uni
  • Page 159 and 160: teacher can just put stuff in the s
  • Page 161 and 162: Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P
  • Page 163 and 164: Germany, after a thousand years as
  • Page 165 and 166: Revolution, its social controls bei
  • Page 167: Under Frederick William II, Frederi
  • Page 171 and 172: where teaching and learning were al
  • Page 173 and 174: to create that abundance it became
  • Page 175 and 176: portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f
  • Page 177 and 178: of argument, now the Prussian conne
  • Page 179 and 180: slits in the grate like an armored
  • Page 181 and 182: would recognize the new opportunity
  • Page 183 and 184: This contradiction is not unknown a
  • Page 185 and 186: independence, knowledge, ability, c
  • Page 187 and 188: utilization—is more than offset b
  • Page 189 and 190: dangerous sciences was mostly limit
  • Page 191 and 192: The abundance of wood in the United
  • Page 193 and 194: industrialization and the demands o
  • Page 195 and 196: fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris
  • Page 197 and 198: chemical processes—is collected.
  • Page 199 and 200: The confinement of American childre
  • Page 201 and 202: Yet America had to be massified, an
  • Page 203 and 204: students with serious literature, p
  • Page 205 and 206: 4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.
  • Page 207 and 208: usiness-industrial groups, but of t
  • Page 209 and 210: followed: by 1917 a bibliography of
  • Page 211 and 212: The National Press Attack On Academ
  • Page 213 and 214: himself is the prototypical social
  • Page 215 and 216: This dinner and its implications se
  • Page 217 and 218: monopolization of first the nation
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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

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    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

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    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

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    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

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    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

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    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

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    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

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    actively seek assistance from busin

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    Chapter 12 Daughters of the Barons

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    The episcopal rule of British Ameri

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    Peter Cookson and Caroline Persell

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    The Order of the Three Crusades, 10

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    monarchs of great Aryan houses. Abe

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    followed were to call it: The right

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    Unpopular Government Maine built a

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    them to be bankers, financiers, par

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    Francisco, the Pacific Union; in Wa

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    eyond its immediate circle of assoc

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    gigantic aggregate of capital and i

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    creation of Fabian socialism and th

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    consultancies were beginning to be

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    Like much that passes for wisdom on

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    ecome any type of specialist I migh

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    This had immense influence on the s

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    4 For instance, the serious problem

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    of respect for the pedagogical ente

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    Thus is the student victim led to t

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    going on, selected tendrils from th

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    Children were to be "loved into sub

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    "New Thought Tide." Because many fe

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    Margaret Sanger wrote, "the most me

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    Napoleon Of Mind Science William Ja

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    disciplines from child development

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    Bending The Student To Reality Twic

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    efore as the marching orders of the

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    qualified to give expert opinion on

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    people’s lives, became the most i

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    coming out of the Decalogue, of Jud

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    day-to-day meaning to compete again

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    Everson v. Board Of Education (1947

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    Judaism Religion is a school of its

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    The neglected genius of American Ch

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    Religion And Rationality The Suprem

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    mathematical value so that citizens

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    physical beauty or your wealth, you

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    Chapter 15 The Psychopathology Of E

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    guilty, once explained at a public

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    from the assault on common sense. S

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    What Really Goes On School wreaks h

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    Ford. The role of grades, report ca

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    cause to congratulate ourselves. (e

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    ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha

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    Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O

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    conspiracy against growing up, sad

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    Published in 1918 near the end of t

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    short-circuit entrepreneurial energ

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    managed to survive and set the Nige

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    Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee

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    intelligentsia is hated and despise

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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

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    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

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    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

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    particular culture it touches is de

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    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

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    There is perhaps no more naked stat

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    What fascinates me most is the cold

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    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

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    Information technology people seek

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    Later we chatted with the lady in a

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    compensation for those whose busine

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    social insecurity is the direct leg

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    assumption that is found throughout

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    away. It was late, I was tired. To

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    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

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    Roland’s unique creation—a live

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    General Braddock and British tradit

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    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

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    Nothing in human history gives us a

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    Don’t let a world of funny animal

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    children free, we should understand

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    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

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