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Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

Literally, legacy means

Literally, legacy means “something left or handed down by a predecessor” (Oxford University Press, 2017). Nonetheless, Preuss (2007) demonstrates that etymologically, the term does not fit the context of the OG. Hence, the word is often described through numerous typologies like Hiller’s (2003) four outcomes (built environment, economic development, memories, and communities), Cashman’s (2003) six types (economic; physical infrastructures; education; public life, politics and culture; sport; symbols, memory and history), or the IOC’s (2013) five legacies (sporting; social, cultural and political; environment; economic; urban), etc. Most typologies include an economic and infrastructural group, which represent the two-main topic focus in the literature (Preuss, 2015). Few authors propose a definition per se. Barget & Gouguet (2007, p. 170) see legacy as “(…) the satisfaction felt as a result of handing down a sporting event to future generations. It mainly measures all the value that could be given to sporting culture as a heritage for mankind”. For Chappelet (2012, p. 77) legacy is: “(…) all that remains and may be considered as consequences of the event in its environment.”. Preuss’ (2007, p. 211) definition appears to be the most complete and suited for this research: “Irrespective of the time of production and space, legacy is all planned and unplanned, positive and negative, tangible and intangible structures created for and by a sport event that remain longer than the event itself.”. Based on these definitions and the literature, Preuss (2014) highlights six notions as essential elements to define legacy: o Time: legacy survives the event and its direct impacts o Tangibility: legacy can be tangible or intangible, material or immaterial o Value: legacy can be positive and/or negative, depending on the stakeholder’s viewpoint o Intention: legacy can be planned or unplanned (intentional or not) o Space: legacy is principally delimited in space, but can have effects beyond its limits o New initiatives: legacy offers further opportunities While defining legacy is not an easy task, it is as difficult to determine what is a legacy. The critical aspect is from which stakeholder’s viewpoint is a legacy determined? Indeed, any consequences of the event can be, at the same time, negative and positive. In example, the gentrification of east London after the 2012 OG allowed the middle-class to find affordable houses, while poorer citizen had to relocate, since east London had higher rental prices (Preuss, 2015). Preuss’ (2015, p. 7) framework (Appendix I) allows one to consider four key aspect of legacy: o “what” is an event-related change o “who” is affected by this change (stakeholders) o “How” does a legacy affect the stakeholders o and “When” does the legacy occur, how long it lasts, and how constant it is over time. Literature Review 9

The framework also demonstrates the struggle of considering all kinds of legacies for all actors over a long time. Organising a SME requires good city planning that will match the stakeholders’ and events’ needs, to minimise negative legacies. Simply put, the event should be enshrined in the city’s development plan as much as possible, to avoid useless investment that would requisition planned funds (in the framework, field D represents the investments for the city’s development Figure 2 1st part of the Legacy Framework Source: (Preuss, 2015) inhibited by the requirements for the event). The reader is presented in the context chapter what can already be considered a legacy for Sion 2026. Nevertheless, the outcomes of an event never provide benefits to every people involved. Furthermore, the notion of “new initiatives” highlights the idea that legacies are also opportunities to turn latent changes (value in exchange) into positive outcomes (value in use). To boost positive outcomes, the preparation phase of the event must include optional measures (Preuss, 2015). Chalip (2004) describe these measures as “leverages”. Studying leverage is a distinct approach by Chalip (2004), proposed to “identify and explore event implementations that can optimise desired event outcomes”. Similarly, O’Brien (2006, p. 260) describes events and the opportunities they offer as a “seed capital” and “what hosts do with that capital is the key to realising sustainable longer-term legacies”. Leverage thus differs from legacy in that it is the establishment of strategies and tactics, used to create the desired legacies (Chalip, 2014). In this optic, Smith (2014) adds that the intention of leverage is to create a new line of thoughts and strategies, where both the legacies and means to achieve them are planned prior to the event. In the literature, different classifications of leveraging are found. On one side, long-term and immediate leverage respectively focuses on destination’s image improvement over time, which can be done by enhancing event advertising and reporting, and on instant economic impact by fostering event visitors spending through four strategies (encouraging shopping activities, lengthening visitor stays, retaining event expenditures, and creating and enhancing business relationships) (Chalip, 2004). On the other side, leveraging projects can be either event-themed, which attempt to address key concerns of the destination by using the event as a leitmotiv, or event-led, which concentrate on optimising the event impacts through associated initiatives. It is of importance to highlight that event-led projects would never exist without the mega-event, while event-themed interventions can survive over time (Smith, 2014). Literature Review 10