4 days ago

Reviving the Flame

Travail de Master de Tiffany Duc

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Based on these information, it can be said that most immediate leverage are event-led, since they target instant spending. Similarly, long-term leverage can be depicted as event-themed project in that they are focusing on the destination’s future. However, Smith’s categorisations are more suitable to this research, given that Chalip’s long-term leverage solely focuses on image and marketing. Additionally, leveraging can be associated with various topics, such as economic and business (O'Brien, 2006), or social and environmental (Chalip, 2006). Economy is mostly tied to event-led project, while social and environmental matters usually fall into event-themed. Though, they are not explicitly bond to one classification or the other. As depicted above, the IOC, OCOG, and NOCs exploit the term legacy to counter negative opinion of the Games; implying that the OG’s positive outcomes will outweigh negative ones. However, the concept of legacy remains unclear and studies related to this field do not provide suitable information to improve SMEs’ planning and management. Authors like Chalip (2006), Smith (2014), or O’Brien (2006) have studied a different approach by proposing to emphasize the importance of leverages. However, actual researches focus too much on economic aspect from an ex post perspective, which prevent the data collection of actions taken upstream to foster legacies. Thus, analysing legacies and what strategies allowed to achieve them is even more challenging. 3.1. Research Goal & Question The above review offers a good emphasize on the complexity of the Olympic Games and their organisation. Throughout history, the expansion of the Games came with economic, and ecological concerns. While the prime purpose of the Olympiad was to bring peace, it grew into an institution willing to promote sport, cultural and environmental welfare. Although their goals are honourable, the OG have both bright and dark sides, which lead two parties to oppose each other: the coalition of beneficiaries who support the Games for the opportunities they provide, the potential to develop cities, attract investors, improve the destination’s image, include minorities, etc.; and the opponents who want to avoid cost overrun, environmental damages, white elephants, overcrowding, etc. Conscious of this eternal debate and the existing risks and issues, the IOC decided to provide future host cities with the Agenda 20 20 to improve the OG and their image worldwide. They find legacy to be a critical point for host cities to benefit from the Games on the long term. Although legacy is hard to define, it encourages organisers to see them as seed capital that must be grown into desired outcomes and target long term, positive heritage, with further opportunities. Literature Review 11

Nonetheless, framing legacies does not provide the host city with concrete steps to achieve them. Rather, the term implies that positive outcomes will prevail over negative ones and will naturally arise from the event. Yet, academics determined that legacies can be positive, tangible, and planned, or not. And information is missing on the way to leverage these legacies, and when these operations should occur. Since most works focus on an “ex post, impacts-driven, outcomes oriented approach” based on tangible aspect (Smith, 2014, p. 18), this research will rather favour an ex ante and analytical tactic, based on intangible aspects of Sion 2026’s desired legacies and their leveraging strategies. The author will call these intangible legacies “communities’ legacies”, which regroups themes linked to the society like sport, human capital, national identity, the environment, and tourism. This leads our author to set her research goal: To determine the purposes and legacies Sion 2026 aims to achieve, by evaluating the potential smaller initiatives and projects bear within an international event (from Mega to human size event) for the destination, in order to determine in what ways, these leverages can provide a win-win situation between the destination and the locals. This goal will be attained by answering the following research question and sub-questions: What legacies can be leveraged and achieved through a “human size” Olympic Winter Games to benefit both the destination and local population? o What legacies and purposes does Sion 2026 aims to achieve? And what domain bare most interest in this context? • What initiative and project are needed and/or planned in the region even without the OWG? o What is meant by “human size” event? o What leverages are already in place and/or scheduled? When will they be implemented and/or planned? o What are the main aspects of communities’ legacies? • What leverages can foster them? • What is their potential and added value within the OWG and in the future? o Who will benefit from these legacies and how? Literature Review 12