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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

120 7 Annex Global

120 7 Annex Global warming potential – France The previous comments concerning primary energy can be applied to the global warming potential. But, the following comment may be added in order to explain the difference between the agriculture contribution to RME and SME. Rape seed and sunflower have a similar productivity per hectare with a nitrogen input very different, respectively 180 and 50-60 units N/ha. As the N2O emission is a fixed percentage of the N fertiliser applied, it explains the difference in GWP. g CO 2 eq. / MJ useful energy 500 400 300 200 100 0 Triticale Biofuel: Processing & Utilisation Biofuel: Agriculture part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system Hard coal 14.3 are added due to system expansion RME 4.6 are added due to system expansion Diesel SME Acidification and Eutrophication – France g SO 2 eq. / MJ useful energy 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 0.02 are substracted due to system expansion Triticale Hard coal RME 0.2 are substracted due to system expansion Diesel SME Diesel Diesel ETBE ETBE MTBE MTBE Miscanthus Miscanthus Natural gas Natural gas Straw Straw Natural gas Biofuel: Processing & Utilisation Biofuel: Agriculture part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system Natural gas

7.1 Country specific life cycle comparisons 121 g NO 3 eq. / MJ useful energy 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Triticale 7.0 are substracted due to system expansion Hard coal RME Diesel 7.14 are substracted due to system expansion SME Diesel ETBE MTBE Biofuel: Processing & Utilisation Biofuel: Agriculture part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system Miscanthus Natural gas Straw Natural gas Generally, the biofuels have higher emission values than the corresponding fossil fuels. This is mainly due to the influence of the agricultural inputs, particularly nitrogen fertilisers. In the case of RME and SME this effect is particularly strong because of their high nitrogen fertiliser demands. The fact that ETBE has lower emission values than the vegetable oil methylesters is mainly explained by the higher productivity per hectare of sugar beet. Summer smog (photochemical ozone creation potential) – France g Ethen eq. / MJ useful energy 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 Triticale 0.01 are substracted due to system expansion Biofuel: Processing & Utilisation Biofuel: Agriculture part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system Hard coal RME 0.01 are substracted due to system expansion Diesel SME Diesel ETBE MTBE Miscanthus Natural gas Straw Natural gas

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