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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

162 7 Annex 7.2.5 Rape

162 7 Annex 7.2.5 Rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) versus fossil diesel fuel for transportation: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels 2500% 2000% 1500% 1000% 500% 0% -500% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity Austria Denmark France Germany Switzerland Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of RME compared to diesel fuel for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuels. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for RME and positive ones represent advantages for diesel fuel. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions The results show relatively large differences between the countries for the most of the impacts. Also in the case of the greenhouse effect there are big differences with France showing the lowest benefits and Austria the highest benefit. Regarding ozone depletion, the highest impacts are recorded in France and the lowest in Austria; the pattern is determined by the ratio N fertiliser/yield. In the case of eutrophication, for Austria the sum of several smaller factors leads to certain credits, resulting in a negative value (advantage compared to diesel fuel), while for Switzerland the reason is that in the case of the agricultural reference system (fallow) higher PO4 3- emissions to water occur than for RME, giving a very high credit. The results on acidification is affected by credits of SO2 emissions to air in Austria and Switzerland.

7.2 Comparisons between the countries for each biofuel 163 7.2.6 Sunflower oil methyl ester (SME) versus fossil diesel fuel for transportation: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels 1500% 1000% 500% 0% -500% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity France Greece Italy Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of SME compared to diesel fuel for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuels. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for SME and positive ones represent advantages for diesel fuel. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions The results give a uniform picture regarding use of fossil fuels, greenhouse effect and also regarding ozone depletion and acidification. The large differences regarding eutrophication are due to different PO4 3- emissions to water and different yields, which together lead to very different credits. Most of the other differences are rather small and to be regarded as less significant.

Bioenergy Update 10-02 - General*Bioenergy