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154 7 Annex 7.1.8

154 7 Annex 7.1.8 Country specific results – Switzerland Introduction The three Swiss biofuels RME, wood and biogas are shown in comparison with their fossil counterparts. The results are presented per MJ useful energy, which means that efficiency factors (0.36 for diesel engine, 0.75 for a wood boiler, 0.9 for oil and gas boiler and 0.8 for gas in order to produce electricity and heat) are already taken into account. The contributions of the agricultural/forestry parts and the energy production are shown in detail to enhance a clear assessment. The agricultural/forestry part contains all processes on the fields, on the farm or in the forest until farm gate for the biofuel crop as well as for the reference crop. Energy production for biofuels starts with transport from farm and contains all subsequent processes, whereas in energy production of fossil fuels all processes are included. The biogas plant belongs to the energy production, the distribution of the slurry belongs to the agricultural part. It is unfortunately possible to assess the influence of the allocation procedures for RME only partly, although the contributions of the substituted systems for glycerine and rape seed meal can be bigger than the absolute values shown. The – negative or positive – consequences on soil ecotoxicity (due to wood decay for example), which can play an important role from an environmental point of view, could not be assessed in the project. Use of fossil fuels – Switzerland All biofuels consume less fossil fuels per MJ useful energy produced than their fossil counterparts (see result diagram below). The fossil energy demand from RME results mainly from the machinery and fertilisers used in the rape seed growing. Due to the system expansion with soy beans there is even a small bonus in the transesterification step. The diesel system needs almost four times as much fossil energy although the fallow does hardly consume any. Heating oil and natural gas need around 80 times more fossil energy than wood logs for heating. The natural gas system for electricity and heat uses about 3.5 times more fossil energy than the biogas system (with both times the same energy demand for the distribution of the slurry). The biofuel needing the least fossil energy per MJ useful energy is by far wood logs for heat with only 0.01 MJ (see result diagram below). Biogas needs roughly 40 times more energy with 0.4 MJ and RME even 70 times more with 0.96 MJ. The latter fact is not only due to the energy consuming required for growing of rape seed, but also due to the much lower efficiency of the diesel engine compared to the wood boiler. For comparisons between the biofuels one would have to take into account the different system boundaries. 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 0,085 are subtracted due to system expansion Primary energy demand (MJ/MJ useful energy) Processing & utilisation Agriculture/forestry part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system RME Diesel Wood Heating oil Natural Gas Biogas Natural Gas Greenhouse effect (greenhouse warming potential GWP) for 500 years – Switzerland All biofuels have a lower GWP than their respective fossil reference systems (see result diagram below) The GWP for RME origins mostly from the nitrous oxide (N2O) formed due to fertilisation, whereas the burden for diesel is almost entirely due to the fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) at combustion. The difference

7.1 Country specific life cycle comparisons 155 between the three heating systems stems entirely from the fossil CO2 emissions at combustion. As the energy source of biogas consists mostly of methane, there is a double reduction of GWP compared with its reference system, since the latter emits not only methane during slurry storage but also fossil CO2 at gas combustion. 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 GWP 500 years (g CO2 eq./MJ useful energy) Processing & utilisation Agriculture/forestry part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system RME Diesel Wood Heating oil Natural Gas Biogas Natural Gas Acidification – Switzerland All biofuels cause slightly more acidification than the fossil fuel systems compared (see diagram below). Although diesel has a higher sulphur content than RME, the agricultural part of RME is more decisive for the overall impact. The spreading of mineral fertilisers results in ammonia (NH3) – emissions which contribute to acidification. The differences between the wood, heating oil and natural gas systems are based on due to the different burning emissions, namely due to higher NH3 and HCl emissions of wood. Biogas burning emits a lot more sulphur oxides (SO2) than natural gas burning, which explains the higher score for the biogas system. 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 Acidification (g SO2 eq./MJ useful energy) Processing & utilisation Agriculture/forestry part Fossil fuel life cycle Agricultural reference system RME Diesel Wood Heating oil Natural Gas Biogas Natural Gas Eutrophication – Switzerland The score for RME is smaller than for the diesel system (see result table below) in spite of more leaching of nitrate (NO3 - ) and higher ammonia (NH3) emissions due to fertilisation. But the system expansion with soy beans gives such a large reduction that the overall result is in favour of the RME system.

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