Views
5 years ago

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

160 7 Annex 7.2.3 Willow

160 7 Annex 7.2.3 Willow versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0% -200% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity Denmark Germany Netherlands Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of willow compared to light oil for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuels. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for willow and positive ones represent advantages for light oil. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions Regarding the parameters use of fossil fuels and greenhouse effect, the results are similar for all three countries. For eutrophication Germany stands out with an exceptionally high impact by using the defaults from the data collection guideline for nitrate emissions to water; for the other countries a more complex model was used (the Netherlands) or other assessments were done (Denmark); for both countries higher nitrate emissions from fallow than from the crop were observed. For summer smog Denmark stands out with an quite high impact. This is due to extremely high methane and NMHC emissions from combustion. Since this cannot be regarded as being typical for other countries in Europe, the results of the Danish chain have been used only for Denmark but not as defaults for other countries (like Finland or the Netherlands) for calculating the European means. Most of the other differences are rather small and to be regarded as less significant.

7.2 Comparisons between the countries for each biofuel 161 7.2.4 Miscanthus versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences related to fossil fuels 1600% 1400% 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0% -200% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity Denmark France Germany Netherlands Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of Miscanthus compared to light oil for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuels. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for Miscanthus and positive ones represent advantages for light oil. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions Regarding the parameters use of fossil fuels and greenhouse effect, the results are similar for all four countries. Regarding ozone depletion, caused by very different ratios N fertiliser/yield Denmark shows the highest value and France the lowest. For eutrophication Germany stands out with an exceptionally high impact by using the defaults from the data collection guideline for nitrate emissions to water; for the other countries a more complex model was used (the Netherlands) or other assessments were done (all of these countries: higher nitrate emissions from fallow than from the crop). Most of the other differences are rather small and to be regarded as less significant.

Bioenergy Update 10-02 - General*Bioenergy
Maximising the environmental benefits of Europe's bioenergy potential
Desktop Management Tools — Which One Is the Best?
Choose The One That Best Fits Your Lifestyle! - Java Fundraiser