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BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST? – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE COMMUNITY – Final Report Research funded in part by The European Commission in the framework of the FAIR V Programme Contract: CT 98 3832 The Research Group: J. Calzoni d , N. Caspersen i , N. Dercas c , G. Gaillard e , G. Gosse h , M. Hanegraaf b , L. Heinzer f , N. Jungk g , A. Kool b , G. Korsuize g , M. Lechner a , B. Leviel h , R. Neumayr a , A. M. Nielsen i , P. H. Nielsen i , A. Nikolaou c , C. Panoutsou c , A. Panvini d , A. Patyk g , J. Rathbauer a , G. A. Reinhardt g , G. Riva d , E. Smedile d , C. Stettler f , B. Pedersen Weidema i , M. Wörgetter a , H. van Zeijts b a BLT – Bundesanstalt für Landtechnik (Austria) b CLM – Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu (Netherlands) c CRES – Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (Greece) d CTI – Comitato Thermotecnico Italiano (Italy) e FAL – Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (Switzerland) f FAT – Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarwirtschaft und Landtechnik (Switzerland) g IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg (Germany); Project Co-ordinator h INRA – Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (France) i TUD – Technical University of Denmark (Denmark) Project co-ordinators: A. Patyk, G. A. Reinhardt (IFEU) Composition of final report: N. C. Jungk (IFEU) This report can be ordered through: IFEU – Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg) Wilckensstrasse 3, D – 69120 Heidelberg, Germany http://www.ifeu.de or Fax: +49-6221-4767-19 or E-Mail: guido.reinhardt@ifeu.de November 2000

Contents Executive summary.............................................................................................................................1 1 Goals, target groups and general information............................................................................9 2 Biofuels under Study .................................................................................................................13 2.1 Biofuels investigated by the participating countries............................................................13 2.2 Principles of the biofuel-fossil fuel comparisons ................................................................14 2.3 Life cycles of solid biofuels ...............................................................................................16 2.3.1 Triticale (whole crops)...........................................................................................16 2.3.2 Short rotation willow coppice ................................................................................17 2.3.3 Miscanthus............................................................................................................18 2.4 Life cycles of liquid biofuels..............................................................................................19 2.4.1 Rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) .........................................................................19 2.4.2 Sunflower oil methyl ester (SME)..........................................................................20 2.4.3 ETBE from sugar beet ...........................................................................................21 2.5 Life cycles of biofuels from residues..................................................................................22 2.5.1 Traditional firewood..............................................................................................22 2.5.2 Wheat straw ..........................................................................................................23 2.5.3 Biogas from swine excrements ..............................................................................24 2.6 Novel production line: electricity from hemp .....................................................................25 3 Life cycle assessment of biofuels: methods and tools ................................................................27 3.1 Life cycle assessment – an overview ..................................................................................27 3.2 Scope definition of the investigated biofuels ......................................................................29 3.2.1 Functions of the production systems ......................................................................29 3.2.2 Functional and reference units ...............................................................................30 3.2.3 System boundaries and unit processes....................................................................30 3.2.4 Treatment of by-products and allocation procedures ..............................................32 3.2.5 Data specifications ................................................................................................33 3.2.6 Assumptions, limitations and review......................................................................34 3.3 Inventory analysis..............................................................................................................34 3.3.1 Data acquisition and quality...................................................................................34 3.3.2 Data format ...........................................................................................................36 3.3.3 Calculation tools....................................................................................................36 3.3.4 Completeness, consistency and sensitivity analysis ................................................37 3.4 Impact assessment .............................................................................................................38 3.4.1 Selection of the impact assessment categories........................................................38 3.4.2 Description of the impact categories ......................................................................40 3.4.3 Parameters and coefficients used ...........................................................................42 3.4.4 Normalisation – a preparation for interpretation.....................................................42

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  • Page 41 and 42: 3.3 Inventory analysis 35 then. Eve
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    4 Environmental results: presentati

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    4.1 Introduction 49 case excluding

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    4.2 European results: biofuels comp

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.3 European results: biofuels for

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    4.4 Summary of country specific res

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    4.4 Summary of country specific res

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    4.4 Summary of country specific res

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    4.5 Summary of comparisons between

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    80 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    82 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    84 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    86 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    88 5 Socio-economic and political a

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    90 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    92 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    94 6 Conclusions and recommendation

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    7 Annex 7.1 Country specific life c

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    7.2 Comparisons between the countri

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    7.2 Comparisons between the countri

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    7.4 List of authors and addresses 1

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    7.5 Data availability 175 7.5 Data

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    7.6 Literature 177 Hauschild and We

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