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5 years ago

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

BIOENERGY FOR EUROPE: WHICH ONES FIT BEST?

166 7 Annex 7.2.9 Wheat

166 7 Annex 7.2.9 Wheat straw versus light oil for district heat production: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels 1600% 1400% 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0% -200% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity Austria Denmark France Germany Greece Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of wheat straw compared to light oil for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuels. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for wheat straw and positive ones represent advantages for light oil. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions Regarding the parameters use of fossil fuels, greenhouse effect, and ozone depletion the results are very uniform between all countries. Regarding acidification and eutrophication Austria and Denmark show very low results caused by very low NOX emissions from combustion. Regarding summer smog Denmark stands out with a high value due to very high methane and NMHC emissions from combustion. Most of the other differences are rather small and to be regarded as less significant.

7.2 Comparisons between the countries for each biofuel 167 7.2.10 Biogas from swine excrements versus natural gas for combined heat and power production: relative impact differences between biofuels and fossil fuels 4000% 3000% 2000% 1000% 0% -1000% -2000% -3000% Use of fossil fuels Greenhouse effect How to interpret the diagram Ozone Depletion by N2O Acidification Eutrophication Summer smog Human toxicity Austria Denmark Greece Italy Netherlands Switzerland Europe Environmental advantages and disadvantages of biogas compared to natural gas for each country involved as well as for Europe are shown by relative differences between the biofuels and the fossil fuel: (biofuel – fossil fuel) / fossil fuel. The zero line indicates the level for fossil fuel. Therefore negative values indicate advantages for biogas and positive ones represent advantages for natural gas. For example, assuming the production and combustion of fossil fuel causes an emission of 1 kg of N2O (Ozone depletion), then a value of -100 % means no net N2O emissions in the case of the biofuel, 0 % means 1 kg N2O (i.e. the same as the fossil fuel), 100 % means 2 kg N2O and so on. Remarks and conclusions Regarding the parameter use of fossil fuels the results are very uniform for all countries, whereas the values for the other impacts are extremely different. Regarding greenhouse effect and summer smog Italy shows the greatest benefits, but it also has the highest impacts regarding acidification and eutrophication.

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