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Marine protected areas for whales, dolphins, and porpoises: a world ...

Marine protected areas for whales, dolphins, and porpoises: a world ...

INTRODUCTION There are

INTRODUCTION There are three main driving forces behind this work. First, the habitat needs of cetaceans – the 84 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises – have been neglected. Marine habitat conservation has lagged behind land conservation. Within marine habitat conservation, cetaceans may be featured in certain reserves, but are their needs being adequately met? In most cases the answer is ‘no’. We need to look carefully at identifying and protecting critical habitat for cetaceans (see Box I.1). The habitat of these wide-ranging animals is best protected through ecosystem-based management approaches (see Box I.2), using a carefully selected network of marine protected areas (MPAs), modelled along the lines of biosphere reserves, or zoned protected areas, which include both highly protected marine reserves as well as zones to allow human uses such as well-managed marine tourism and fishing. MPA regimes can address some or even most cetacean habitat protection needs, but it is useful to maintain a broad approach to conservation efforts on behalf of cetaceans to include other ecosystem-based protection and management strategies, international conventions and treaties, and other pragmatic approaches. Second, there is more research and information on cetaceans than ever before – although large portions of it are difficult to access. The past three decades have seen the success of photographic identification (photo-ID) and other benign methods of studying cetaceans, including radio and satellite tagging and biopsy of skin and blubber for genetics and to measure contaminant loads and, most recently, diet. This has been the era of studying whales from live animals rather than carcasses, and with these studies, whales and dolphins have revealed certain details of their habitat needs, in many cases for the first time. There remain large gaps with most cetacean species, especially those that spend their lives in deep waters on the high seas, but the growing body of work is exciting, substantial and ready to be acted upon. Yet much cetacean habitat literature remains buried in unpublished reports, conference abstracts and proceedings, sighting databases, conservation organization newsletters, and papers in little-known journals that are not easily accessible or known to protected area managers and conservationists who focus on habitat issues. Research-compiling tools such as SEAMAP are starting to address this

2 Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises BOX I.1 CRITICAL HABITAT Critical habitat refers to those parts of a cetacean’s range, either a whole species or a particular population of that species, that are essential for day-to-day survival, as well as for maintaining a healthy population growth rate. Areas that are regularly used for feeding (including hunting), breeding (all aspects of courtship) and raising calves, as well as, sometimes, migrating, are part of critical habitat, especially if these areas are regularly used. Unlike land-based critical habitat, however, marine critical habitat boundaries may be less fixed, especially in terms of hunting and feeding areas which are dependent on upwelling and other ever-changing oceanographic conditions. Baleen whales, for example, are known to feed in and around upwellings, which vary depending on local and large-scale oceanographic conditions to some extent during a season and from year to year. The implication for MPA design is that more flexible definitions of MPAs for cetaceans are needed in some cases. This book argues for larger overall biosphere reserve-type areas which would include a number of highly protected ‘core areas’ corresponding to cetacean critical habitat with boundaries that can be adjusted as needed from year to year or even within seasons. Such adjustments should be adaptive, constantly reviewed and sensitive to signals from the wider environment. To achieve this fine-grained kind of critical habitat management, it will be necessary to unravel and understand ecosystem processes and the impacts that humans can have on such processes. An appropriate tool for this is ecosystem-based management (see Box I.2). Critical habitat for cetaceans is a fairly new idea, yet to be fully explored, much less implemented. In the comprehensive US blueprint for MPAs, ‘critical habitats’ are areas ‘such as spawning grounds, nursery grounds, or other areas harboring vulnerable life stages’ (Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, 2000). According to this document, ‘the primary consideration for implementing marine reserves should be the needs of each biogeographical region based on protecting critical habitats’. It is becoming clear that identifying the critical habitat of cetaceans, the crucial core areas, will be the first step towards good marine management of MPAs with cetaceans. Critical habitat is identified under the US Endangered Species Act of 1973 but, to date, has mainly been applied to land-based endangered species. The Endangered Species Act prohibits federal government agencies from allowing activities that adversely affect critical habitat. Federal permits for fishing, oil and mineral development activities within critical habitat areas must show that critical habitat will not be harmed. Taylor et al (2004) showed that designation of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act is significantly associated with improving population trends for species listed as endangered. Much research over the next few decades will be focused on defining, locating and understanding the parameters for cetacean critical habitat. Some of these are conventional geographical aspects and others are the more fluid oceanographic parameters such as temperature, salinity and current. For example, a recent study attempting to quantify cetacean habitat patterns in the California Current using a broad suite of oceanographic data was 48 per cent successful in predicting cetacean presence, ranging from 70 per cent for Dall’s porpoises to less than 10 per cent for fin whales (Reilly et al, 1997). As understanding and measurement of the appropriate parameters becomes sharper, this predictive ability should improve. Thus, critical habitat may be defined as not only the fixed and seasonally changing boundaries of the places cetaceans habitually use, but also as the less-

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  • Page 6 and 7: CONTENTS List of Figures vii List o
  • Page 8 and 9: LIST OF FIGURES I.1 The exclusive e
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  • Page 12 and 13: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First I must thank
  • Page 14 and 15: Acknowledgements xiii Charitable Tr
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  • Page 18 and 19: PROLOGUE The publication of this ha
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    Ocean Sanctuaries, Marine Reserves

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    Ocean Sanctuaries, Marine Reserves

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    2 WHY SPOTLIGHT WHALES, DOLPHINS AN

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    Why Spotlight Whales, Dolphins and

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    Table 2.3 Baleen whales. World dist

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    Table 2.4 Toothed whales: sperm and

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    Why Spotlight Whales, Dolphins and

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    Creating Better Marine Protected Ar

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    B Scientific importance Does the pr

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    4 STRATEGIES FOR PROTECTING CETACEA

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    Strategies for Protecting Cetaceans

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    5 HABITAT PROTECTION FOR CETACEANS

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    Case Study 1: Ross Sea - time for n

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    Case Study 4: Regno di Nettuno MPA

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    Epilogue 449 Table E.1 Total sanctu

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    Epilogue 451 4 That the long arm of

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    REFERENCES Agardy, T (1997) Marine

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    References 455 Bearzi, G (1995) The

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    References 457 11th Biennial Confer

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    References 459 Vol II, The Great Ba

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    References 461 Forcada, J (1995) Ab

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    References 463 Hoyt, E (1978) Frien

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    References 465 CH Peterson, RS Sten

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    References 467 Lauriano, G (1997b)

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    References 469 Mercier, F and C Mon

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    References 471 Notarbartolo di Scia

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    References 473 Prideaux, M (2003a)

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    References 475 Sanino, GP and JL Y

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    References 477 Tregenza, NJC, SD Be

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    Abaco National Park 220-1 Abrolhos

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    Calayan Island Protected Area 336-7

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    European Union Habitats and Species

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    315-6, 342, 359-60, 381, 398, 400,

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    Monte Bellos/Barrow Island Marine R

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    Queensland 430-3 Race Rocks Candida

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    Tierra del Fuego National Park and

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    Blainville’s Beaked Whale Mesoplo

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    Resident Atlantic spotted dolphins,

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    Some 230 northern bottlenose whales

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