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Marine protected areas for whales, dolphins, and porpoises: a world ...

Marine protected areas for whales, dolphins, and porpoises: a world ...

Ocean Sanctuaries,

Ocean Sanctuaries, Marine Reserves or Parks? 23 very large area which gives cetaceans protection from whaling but without either active multiple-use management or highly protected core areas. In practice, sanctuaries function mainly as national or international statements of good intention. They may forbid hunting, but for the most part there was no hunting of cetaceans in the recent histories of these sanctuaries anyway. And even as a sanctuary against hunting, there are various loopholes, such as ‘scientific whaling’, indigenous whaling, small cetacean hunting, and incidental kills associated with various fishing activities. A number of papers and reports have focused on the meaning and rationale behind international whale sanctuaries (eg Holt, 2000; Leaper and Papastavrou, 2001; Phillips, 1996). Carlson (unpublished) listed 52 whale sanctuaries of all sizes, drawing on the more restricted definition of a cetacean sanctuary adopted by the IUCN/UNEP/WWF Workshop on Cetacean Sanctuaries, held in México in February 1979. This workshop defined a cetacean sanctuary as a place where: • no cetacean may be killed, taken alive or harassed; • the environmental qualities necessary for the biological functions that cetaceans perform there (such as breeding, calving, nursing, migrating, feeding) are not impaired by human activities; • benign scientific research and observation by the public may be conducted under appropriate control; and • public awareness of the significance of cetaceans in the natural environment can be enhanced (IUCN/UNEP/WWF, 1979). Yet even this definition of sanctuary, making it into more of an MPA, is not enough to ensure true comprehensive protection for cetaceans, or for anything else, when the area to be covered is large, such as an entire ocean basin – most or all of which is on the high seas outside national waters. But the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and various other fisheries agreements and conventions, all of which have come into force since this workshop, hold great promise in terms of creating effective large-scale MPAs for cetaceans. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals with its comprehensive list of conservation measures – and to a lesser extent the Indian Ocean Sanctuary and the more recent Southern Ocean Sanctuary – may provide the building blocks. But first let’s look at the most effective and adaptable architecture for an MPA of any size: the biosphere reserve.

24 Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises BOX 1.1 IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORIES I–VI FOR PROTECTED AREAS (PAS), ALSO APPLIED TO MARINE PROTECTED AREAS (MPAS) According to the World Conservation Union (IUCN, 1994), a protected area (PA) is defined as ‘an area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means’. A marine protected area is defined as ‘any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora and fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment’. The various categories of protected areas – also applicable to marine protected areas – are further defined as follows: Category Ia – Strict nature reserve: • a protected area managed mainly for science; • an area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring. Category Ib – Wilderness area: • a protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection; • a large area of unmodified or slightly modified land and/or sea retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition. Category II – National park: • a protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation; • a natural area of land and/or sea designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations, (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area, and (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. Category III – Natural monument: • a protected area managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features; • an area containing one or more specific natural or natural/cultural features which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Category IV – Habitat/species management area: • a protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention; • an area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species.

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    5 HABITAT PROTECTION FOR CETACEANS

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    Epilogue 449 Table E.1 Total sanctu

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    REFERENCES Agardy, T (1997) Marine

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    References 455 Bearzi, G (1995) The

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    References 457 11th Biennial Confer

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    References 459 Vol II, The Great Ba

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    References 461 Forcada, J (1995) Ab

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    References 465 CH Peterson, RS Sten

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    References 467 Lauriano, G (1997b)

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    References 469 Mercier, F and C Mon

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    References 471 Notarbartolo di Scia

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    References 473 Prideaux, M (2003a)

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    References 475 Sanino, GP and JL Y

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    References 477 Tregenza, NJC, SD Be

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    Abaco National Park 220-1 Abrolhos

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    Calayan Island Protected Area 336-7

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    European Union Habitats and Species

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    315-6, 342, 359-60, 381, 398, 400,

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    Monte Bellos/Barrow Island Marine R

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    Queensland 430-3 Race Rocks Candida

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    Tierra del Fuego National Park and

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    Blainville’s Beaked Whale Mesoplo

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