illusions held by and imposed on portions of the masses, intelligence in psychological warfare. Why a Britisher? While the cause and development of Nazi butchery Until World War I, Great Britain remained the top stemmed wholly from the world economic collapse and imperialist force. Its intelligence network, dating back to resulting despair (especially aggravated by the the 16th century, had developed into the world's best degeneracy and impotence of the Communist Parties), secret service operation. The U.S.'s Office of Strategic its specific form, eugenics, was devised by the Nazi's Services (OSS) was a kindergarten joke compared with favorite theoreticians and technicians the Britain's MIS. Britain had the sophistication and expsychiatrists, pertise, lingering from its "heyday," to develop the Two individuals m particular stand out. necessary type of intelligence system demanded by the U.S., the leading political and economic power. For his First Ernest Rudin, architect of the eugenics law, a eftbrts, Rees in 1946 received the U.S. Lasker Award wartime director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and a from General Omar Bradley. psychiatrist, actively sponsored "biological psychiatry." Rees taught no black magic. He schooled the CIA's Secondly, as early as 1920 an "outstanding" German precursors in "psychoanalytically oriented" brainpsychiatrist, Alfred Hoche, co-authored a book called washing and counterinsurgency- i.e. the use of the' The Destruction of Life Devoid of Value. Hoche firmly psychological profile. He presented models of slave-labor outlined genetic theories of so-called mental illness, and programs based on his Nazi theories of the "conadvocated "mercy killing" as a solution both to the stitutional inferiority of one-tenth of the community" public health problem and the suffering of the in- (including "coloured men" and "those prone to condividual, tacting venereal disease").  He conveyed ways to It was German psychiatrists, the original Nazi doctors, establish t¥ont organizations, such as his Rockefellerwho designed the crematoria, funded Tavistock Institute and the World Federation for The exploitation of the psychological sciences by the Mental Health, to provide a fleshy rump for major Nazis merely adumbrated a far fiercer effort to abort the death-heads counterinsurgency operations. present revolutionary potential of the working class Rees did to psychology and psychiatry in the 1940's worldwide. The work that was begun by fascism in the exactly what the CIA is now doing to Brazil: cleaned and 1930's was adopted and advanced in previously un- polished it up for the real debacle- the looting of foreseen ways, particularly by the bourgeoisie in England humanity smoothly to its death. It is this process that and the U.S. The person who above all others "deserves" Rees references when he states that "the solution [to the credit for the shaping of Rockefeller-1984 psychological subversive rebellion] is more likely to lie along the lines warfare is a Britisher the above-mentioned Dr. John of social psychiatry than of official suppression." Rawlings Rees. The bulk of Rees's fascist plan is printed in his book, Rees, through British Intelligence, had a primary duty particularly its last chapters, "The Shaping of Psychiatry during World War II: to train U.S. military and civilian by War," which is a compilation of lectures presented to 49 Cause of Death: "biological psychiatry"
50 U.S. Army psychiatrists in 1945. Here Rees explains the role of his psychiatric Gestapo: ...They are not merely dealing with outpatient work amongst those who fall sick, but they are concerned with the minor indications of instability that link up with disciplinary troubles, with social unrest and with poor morale. Through their emphasis on, and interest in, conditions of work, they can advise on the modification of working hours and conditions, on welfare and the use of leisure, on training and allocation and on all the manifold group problems that are there to be seen by anyone who is in the group but yet has learned to be attacked.(60) It is upon such principles that the major "mental health" institutions in the U.S. were created, notably the Veterans Administration, the "private" social welfare agencies, and especially the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The Mental Health Act of 1946 was, in the NIMH's own words, "a major turning point in the entire development of the field of mental health."  This Act authorized broad support for research, training, support of service, the establishment of clinics and treatment centers, pilot and demonstration studies, and direct assistance to the States. Its form, however, is less im- Dr. John Rawlings Rees portant than its content. What the NIMH, more than any other institution, did in its formative years was to but as a sacrifice to Hitler's divide-and-conquer anti- Semitism. Lewin, in fact, is noted for his refinement of shape mental health research and practice along Reesian Germany not because of any basic political differences lines, the Nazi-formulated "leaderless group" technique into a But Rees influenced more than institutions; he sophisticated tool of counterinsurgency. primarily influenced those individuals who developed the In the early 1930's Lewin first developed contact not institutions. One such Rees creation is Imamu Baraka*; _¢ith Rees, but with one of his Tavistock colleagues, Eric another is Kurt Lewin. Trist. (Trist today steers the CIA-directed LEAA, Kurt Lewin, the "father" of group dynamics, was one NIMH-NIH, Ford Foundation and Wrorld Bank-funded of Rees's first cadre recruits. Lewin, a psychologist, was brainwashing network at the Wharton School of the a "political" refugee from Nazi Germany who, like so University of Pennsylvania.) More than a decade later, many other German "intellects," was forced out of Trist, alongwith A.T.M. Wilson, prepared a proposal to the Rockefeller Foundation which led to the establishment of the Tavistock Institute in London. Rees was its first director. Immediately upon establishment of Tavistock, Trist contacted Lewin, who had already formed the North American precursor to the CIAcontrolled Institute for Social Research (ISR), the Research Center for Group Dynamics at M.I.T. The Reesites at Tavistock wanted Lewin to jointly establish an international journal described as "working towards the integration of the social sciences." Lewin eagerly agreed, and thus sprang forth one of the primarily CIAbacked journals, Human Relations. _:' * In 1968 Rees, posing as the director of a nonexistent company, New Coals, Inc., set up the meetings between LeRoi Jones and Anthony Imperiale that launched the CIA's "Operation Newark." See New Solidarity, August 31,.1973, Vol. IV, No. 20 for further details.