atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power | 04.2019

inforum

atw Vol. 64 (2019) | Issue 4 ı April

FEATURE | MAJOR TRENDS IN ENERGY POLICY AND NUCLEAR POWER 192

| | Editorial Advisory Board

Frank Apel

Erik Baumann

Dr. Erwin Fischer

Carsten George

Eckehard Göring

Florian Gremme

Dr. Ralf Güldner

Carsten Haferkamp

Christian Jurianz

Dr. Guido Knott

Prof. Dr. Marco K. Koch

Ulf Kutscher

Herbert Lenz

Jan-Christan Lewitz

Andreas Loeb

Dr. Thomas Mull

Dr. Ingo Neuhaus

Dr. Joachim Ohnemus

Prof. Dr. Winfried Petry

Dr. Tatiana Salnikova

Dr. Andreas Schaffrath

Dr. Jens Schröder

Norbert Schröder

Prof. Dr. Jörg Starflinger

Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske

Dr. Brigitte Trolldenier

Dr. Walter Tromm

Dr. Hans-Georg Willschütz

Dr. Hannes Wimmer

Ernst Michael Züfle

In countries with a high potential for using hydropower,

in many cases this source of energy accounts for a

high share of power generation. In Europe (data for 2017),

this applies above all to Norway (96 %), Iceland (73 %),

Austria (60 %), Switzerland (59 %) and Albania (100 %),

in North America to Canada (57 %), in South America to

Paraguay (100 %), Brazil (63 %), Colombia (76 %),

Venezuela (65 %), Uruguay (59 %) and Peru (55 %), in

Oceania to New Zealand (58 %) and in Asia to Laos, Nepal,

Bhutan and North Korea. The world leader in the use of

hydropower to generate electricity is China. In spite of this,

the share of hydropower in the country’s total power

generation was limited to 18 % in 2017. In Africa too,

hydropower has a high share of power generation in some

countries. This applies to Ethiopia (93 %) among others.

The share of hydropower in Zambia and the Congo is more

than 90 % and in Mozambique more than 80 %. Nevertheless,

the total electricity generated by hydropower

throughout the African continent in 2017 was 9 % lower

than Norway’s hydropower-generated electricity.

In some countries, geothermal energy also plays an

important role in power generation. In absolute terms, the

highest installed capacity based on geothermal energy

(TOP 10) exists in the USA, Indonesia, the Philippines,

Turkey, New Zealand, Mexico, Italy, Iceland, Kenya and

Japan. As measured by the power generation of each

country, the share of geothermal energy is above-average

in Iceland at 27 % and in New Zealand at 17 %.

In the case of bioenergies (solid, liquid and gaseous),

Brazil tops the global rankings with an electricity generation

capacity of 15 GW, followed by the USA (13 GW),

China (11 GW), India (10 GW) and Germany (9 GW). The

share of bioenergies in the electricity generation volume is

above the global average of 2 % in countries such as Brazil

(9 %) and Germany (7 %).

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Although the natural conditions play an important role

in solar energy and wind power, the orientation of

energy policy in the various countries, expressed by the

intensity of government support, is even more decisive for

the utilization ratio of these renewables. The most

important example in this context is Germany. At the end

of 2017, Germany ranked third in terms of installed wind

turbine capacity, third only behind China and the USA, and

fourth in terms of solar energy, behind China, Japan and

the USA. As measured by the power generation volume,

the share of wind and solar in Germany was 23 % in 2017,

compared to a global average of 6 % and despite the fact

that Germany is not one of the most favored locations in

the world in terms of natural conditions. With regard to

wind power, this applies more to a country such as Denmark.

In 2017, around half of the electricity generated

there was provided on the basis of wind power. [1]

Political decisions are key drivers for the intensity of

nuclear power use for power generation. France, for

example, puts its faith in nuclear power after the first oil

price crisis in 1973. In 2017, nuclear power accounted for

72 % of total power generation there. In absolute terms,

the USA is currently the leader in the use of nuclear power.

In 2017, twice as much electricity was generated from

nuclear power there as in France. However, at 20 % the

share of nuclear power in the USA is considerably lower

than in France. Nuclear power accounts for double the

share in Sweden compared to the USA. In the Ukraine this

is 54 % and in Belgium 49 %. Countries such as Germany

and Japan, backed by the government energy policy, also

relied heavily on nuclear power in the past. In both

countries, nuclear power accounted for just under one

third of power generation at times. After the Fukushima

nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan suspended the power

generation of all nuclear reactors for mandatory safety

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ISSN 1431-5254

Feature

The Role of Resources and Reserves for the Global Energy Supply ı Hans-Wilhelm Schiffer

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