atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power | 04.2019


atw Vol. 64 (2019) | Issue 4 ı April


life. The optimal model for the

involvement of external stakeholders

into NPPs that we have established is

shown in Figure 4.

The effective model of involvement

of external stakeholders integrates

internal resources (employees) and

external stakeholders in a meaningful

and responsible manner. It is necessary

to take into account social, legal,

political, cultural and all other diversity,

interests and expectations. The

key position in the model is given

to effective communication model

between the NPP and its external

stakeholders. Social responsibility of

the NPPs begins with top management

and is deployed to whole

organizational structure. The optimal

model establishes self-assessment

mechanisms and continuous implemen

tation of improvements, which

consequently allows redefinition of

the vision and mission of the NPPs.

The self-assessment logic and the

establishment of conditions for

continuous improvements (EFQM

RADAR, Deming’s PDCA circle or

some other managers tool) is included

in the process loop to achieve the

strategic goals. Socially responsible

activities of the NPPs are not inferior

to achieving the maximum possible

profit. Potential conflicts between

social responsibility and economic

concern can be solved by rising awareness

of long-term (positive) effects

and benefits of socially responsible

organizations. Namely, overcoming

conflicts between NPPs and their

stakeholders has positive implications

on higher social and economic efficiency,

on safety and acceptability of

the NPPs. A critical analysis of efficiency

and the introduction of improvements

represent the way to

greater acceptability of the NPPs in

the environment, sustainability of

nuclear energy and excellence in

relations to external stakeholders.

Acceptability of the NPPs in the environment

enhances the quality of life.

In addition to responsible owners and

operators, the important condition for

successful coexistence with the NPPs

are responsible, critical and objective

external stakeholders as well.

Additional research areas

The article presents the optimal model

of participation of external stakeholders

in important decisions related

to nuclear energy. We are aware that

the integration of stakeholders in

the NPPs is not always and everywhere

optimal, and is influenced

by many factors. Therefore, there is a

possibility for gaps between practice

and the model. NPPs should evaluate

causes of such inconsistencies, find

ways to overcome them, and include

owners and operators of the NPPs in

the analysis, to express their view of

this area.

Further research could focus on

studying interactions with influential

other groups of external stakeholders,

e.g. it would make sense to include

stakeholders who live in neighbouring

countries that do not have NPPs on

their territory. It would be practical to

better define the specific interests and

impacts of individual groups of external


5 Conclusion

NPPs are aware of their impact on the

wider society. As expressed in the

survey by NPPs’ operators and owners,

they are ready to satisfy interests of

their external stakeholders and with

full responsibility. Using the SEM

method, we have proven that the

acceptance of NPPs and quality of

coexistence depend on respect of

interests of the NPPs’ external stakeholders.

Involvement of external stakeholders

into the whole life cycle of the

NPPs enables rational and systematic

solutions to challenges of coexistence

and quality of life. Strengthening

social responsibility in the field of

nuclear energy offers some starting

points and answers to environmental

issues and sustainability also in the

light of global economy. It affects the

acceptability of the NPPs and the

quality of life of individuals and

different groups in a modern society

and in the environment in which

nuclear facilities are located. The

research contributes to the society,

owners and operators of the NPPs.

The con tribution is in the field of

relations between the NPPs and its

stakeholders. The impact of the NPPs

addresses many areas and can represent

important social, economic and

cultural indicators in all structures

of society. Any additional research,

especially from specific and unexplored

areas of coexistence with the

NPPs, and the implementation of

socially responsible principles, therefore

represents an important contribution.


We would like to thank the WANO

organization for enabling us to spread

invitation to NPPs to participate in the

survey through their information

system. By supporting our research,

WANO demonstrates own social

responsibility and the importance of

common concern for prosperity of a

wider society.

We would also like to thank all

respondents that participated in the

research for their interest and cooperation

as our thanks to them was

not possible earlier due to anonymity

of the survey.


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Dr. M. Simončič

(corresponding author)

Lead engineer of analytical

chemistry and radiochemistry

Nuclear Power Plant Krško

Vrbina 12

8270 Krško, Slovenia.

Dr. G. Žurga

Professor and independent

researcher in the area

of management


Energy Policy, Economy and Law

Successful Co-Existance of Nuclear Power Plants with Their External Stakeholders ı Milan Simončič and Gordana Žurga

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