atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power | 04.2019

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atw Vol. 64 (2019) | Issue 4 ı April

DECOMMISSIONING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT 224

to assess adequately the quality of

regulatory policies and outcomes”

[26].

In examining “how the sausage is

made,” Barnett also discourses on

these procedural processes that affect

both validity and legitimacy within a

political law-making system as laws

created within that system can

potentially be “valid and illegitimate”

or “legitimate and unjust” [24]. Such

a paradoxical outcome is unfortunate

but is a consequence that the procedures

in practice do not provide the

necessary guarantees allowing the

promulgation of evenhanded laws

or rules, or because there was a failure

to adequately follow the correct procedures

in place.

The potential extended timelime of

envisioned nuclear waste management

programs demands these

programs must therefore stand firmly

on the concept of legal ‘stability’. Once

a civilian nuclear power program is

initiated, and certain milestones are

achieved, the space for deviation or

‘change’ diminishes in any nuclear

power and waste management program,

especially given that a number

of nation state’s deep geologic repositories

are not planned with retrievability

in mind. This shrinking space

for ‘change’ in a nuclear power and

waste management program is shown

in Figure 2.

Footnotes

1 According to Robert Higgs, “Estimates of gross domestic product

(GDP)... Became an essential part of economic analysis…

in the late 1930s and early 1940s”. See: HIGGS, R 2015,

'Gross Domestic Product – an Index of Economic Welfare or a

Meaningless Metric?', Independent Review, 20, 1, pp. 153-157,

Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 June 2017.

2 to stand by things decided.

3 From the pen of Clarence N. Goodwin.

4 Human history provides a number of examples of failed and

fallen empires. Certainly, for the western world, the collapse of

the Roman Empire is a striking and often discussed example.

Other examples might include the Arab Empire, also known as

the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire and the British Empire.

Common features leading to the decline of these empires

include a decline in the values underpinning the empire,

political corruption, and military spending. See: The Decline and

Fall of Empires, https://www.forbes.com/sites/stratfor/2015/

04/20/the-decline-and-fall-of-empires/#1248dd3d383e,

viewed July 11, 2018.

5 An example could be provided during the breakup of the Union

of Soviet Socialist Republic in the early 1990’s. The international

community rallied to provide assistance to these nation states

to successfully retain and maintain control over their nuclear

power plants, enrichment capabilities, as well as other fundamental

aspects of both their civilian and/or military nuclear

programs. However, these states as such did not cease to exist

and this was more of a transition between political systems,

while the central government structure was maintained. See:

Hill, F and Jewett, P “BACK IN THE USSR” Russia's Intervention in

the Internal Affairs Of the Former Soviet Republics and the Implications

for United States Policy Toward Russia, January 1994,

https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/

Back-in-the-USSR-1994.pdf, viewed June 15, 2018. Also see:

Allison, Graham. 2012. What Happened to the Soviet Superpower’s

Nuclear Arsenal? Clues for the Nuclear Security Summit.

HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP12- 038, John

F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, https://

dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/9403176, viewed July 11, 2018.

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[8] Sanders, M, & Sanders, C 2016, ‘A world’s dilemma ‘upon

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[22] M.C. Sanders and C.E. Sanders, “The Path Towards a

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A Comparative Analysis of the Legislative and Regulatory

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Authors

Mark Callis Sanders

Sanders Engineering

1350 E. Flamingo Road Ste.

13B #290

Las Vegas NV 89119

USA

Charlotta E. Sanders

Department of Mechanical

Engineering

University of Nevada

Las Vegas (UNLV)

4505 S. Maryland Pwky

Las Vegas, NV 89154

USA

Decommissioning and Waste Management

A World’s Dilemma ‘Upon Which the Sun Never Sets’: The Nuclear Waste Management Strategy: Russia, Asia and the Southern Hemisphere Part I

ı Mark Callis Sanders and Charlotta E. Sanders

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