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evaluation of the european strategy on safety and health at work ...

evaluation of the european strategy on safety and health at work ...

EVALUATION OF THE

EVALUATION OF THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY ON SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK 2007-2012183obtaining a global ban on ong>theong> use ong>ofong> asbestos, or on improving ong>theong> comparability ong>ofong>data on accidents.7.1.3 ImpactQ9: What were ong>theong> effects generated from ong>theong> actions taken by Member States and at ong>theong>EU level as a result ong>ofong> ong>theong> European ong>strategyong>?Lack ong>ofong> dataDue to lack ong>ofong> data, it is not currently possible to establish ong>theong> extent to which ong>theong>goal ong>ofong> achieving a 25% reduction in ong>theong> incidence ong>ofong> occupational accidents hasbeen achieved. Based on ong>theong> available data, it seems likely that a reduction willhave been achieved, but ong>theong> extent ong>ofong> that reduction cannot yet be assessed. Withrespect to work related diseases, ong>theong> limited data available suggests that ong>theong> goal ong>ofong>a reduction in ong>theong> incidence has not been achieved.Even when data does become available, ong>theong> question will remain to what extent anyoverall change in ong>theong> incidence ong>ofong> occupational accidents and diseases can beascribed, directly or indirectly, to ong>theong> European ong>strategyong>. It is well known that ong>theong>number ong>ofong> accidents at work and ong>theong> number ong>ofong> occupational illnesses areinfluenced by many factors oong>theong>r than those covered by ong>theong> ong>strategyong>. Also, ong>theong>causal relationships between different actions, outcomes and impacts are complexand interlinked.It is ong>theong>refore not possible within ong>theong> framework ong>ofong> this ong>evaluationong> to establishconclusions on ong>theong> impact ong>ofong> ong>theong> European ong>strategyong> on ong>theong> level ong>ofong> work-relatedaccidents and diseases.Intermediate impactsAs a way to approach ong>theong> question ong>ofong> impact, ong>theong> ong>evaluationong> has consideredintermediate impacts, which could contribute towards ong>theong> wider impacts ong>ofong>reducing ong>theong> incidence ong>ofong> work related accidents and diseases. Achieving suchdevelopments is essentially about changing behavioural patterns at ong>theong> level ong>ofong> ong>theong>individual companies and ong>theong>ir managers and ong>theong> individual workers involved.National authorities and inspectorates are important intermediaries in ong>theong> processwhen seen from ong>theong> European perspective as are ong>theong> employers and workersorganisations.The ong>evaluationong> has in this context sought to address ong>theong> following key questions:› Did ong>theong> implementation ong>ofong> ong>theong> ong>strategyong> lead to a better implementation ong>ofong> ong>theong>OSH Directives?› Did ong>theong> implementation ong>ofong> ong>theong> ong>strategyong> lead to a higher degree ong>ofong> awareness ong>ofong>ong>theong> OSH regulation and ong>theong> value ong>ofong> implementing instruments for better OSHmanagement?› Did ong>theong> implementation ong>ofong> ong>theong> ong>strategyong> lead to a better understanding ong>ofong> ong>theong>risks to be addressed and to ong>theong> appropriate policy answers in terms ong>ofong>regulation or oong>theong>r instruments to address ong>theong>se risks?http://projects.cowiportal.com/ps/A019055/Documents/3 Project documents/Interim and final report/Final report October 2012/OSH ong>evaluationong>-report_Final_submitted 14 March2013.docx

184 EVALUATION OF THE EUREVALUATION OF THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY ON SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK 2007-2012184Impact on betterimplementationThe data on ong>theong> detailed implementation ong>ofong> ong>theong> OSH Directives in ong>theong> MemberStates is scarce. The existing data suggests that implementation is a challenge - inparticular for SMEs. The ong>strategyong> sought to address this by focusing on guides toimplementation ong>ofong> ong>theong> Directives, addressing specific challenges in ong>theong> areas ong>ofong>sub-contracting and prevention services and focusing on adaptation andsimplification ong>ofong> ong>theong> legal framework. The guides to implementation ong>ofong> Directiveshave had a marginal impact as ong>theong>re has been a lack ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir dissemination. Inaddition, as ong>theong>y are very complex ong>theong>ir direct applicability in ong>theong> companieshaving to implement ong>theong> legal requirements can be questioned. There was verylimited activity in ong>theong> areas ong>ofong> prevention services and sub-contracting, which alsoled to a very marginal impact. The same conclusion applies to ong>theong> area ong>ofong>simplification ong>ofong> legislation.On ong>theong> positive side, ong>theong> ong>strategyong> has influenced ong>theong> policy framework in severalMember States and served as an important inspiration for Member States inpromoting OSH objectives. In those countries with more fragmented OSHstructures and actions, ong>theong> European ong>strategyong> has been an effective instrument inimproving ong>theong>se and moving ong>theong>se Member States closer to ong>theong> more advancedcountries. Notwithstanding, implementation varies, with some Member Statesbeing more effective than oong>theong>rs. There are thus strong indications in ong>theong> data thatong>theong> European ong>strategyong> led to action at ong>theong> national level (through nationalstrategies), which would not oong>theong>rwise have been taken, and that this led to a betterimplementation ong>ofong> OSH regulation.The ong>strategyong> has also provided an impetus towards a useful on-going dialoguebetween EU-OSHA, SLIC and ACSH, which has provided for key resourcepersons to exchange experiences and to improve ong>theong>ir basis and capacity to supportprevention and ong>theong> implementation ong>ofong> legislation in ong>theong> context ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir ownnational systems. During interviews, a number ong>ofong> national stakeholders haveemphasised ong>theong> role ong>ofong> ong>theong> European ong>strategyong> in relation to ensuring a levelplaying-field and ong>theong> functioning ong>ofong> ong>theong> internal market in ong>theong> EU. They considerthat ong>theong> ong>strategyong> has contributed to a more harmonised implementation ong>ofong> OSHrequirements.The comprehensive ong>evaluationong> ong>ofong> ong>theong> OSH Directives, to be undertaken in 2013-2014, will provide more detailed insights into ong>theong> challenges faced by ong>theong> MemberStates and ong>theong> individual actors in implementing ong>theong> legal framework. The resultsong>ofong> this ong>evaluationong> should feed into ong>theong> planning ong>ofong> activities to be undertaken undera new ong>strategyong>.In respect to instruments to address implementation challenges, ong>theong> possibilities ong>ofong>applying economic instruments did not receive much attention under ong>theong> currentong>strategyong>. During ong>theong> period ong>ofong> ong>theong> current ong>strategyong> ong>theong> evidence supporting ong>theong>argument that investments in OSH create positive returns has been significantlystrengong>theong>ned. This indicates that economic instruments constitute a relevantinstrument to apply in OSH policy and this calls for future action, e.g. dialogue andexchange ong>ofong> experience among ong>theong> Member States on this subject.Impact on awarenessEU-OSHA has undertaken a range ong>ofong> initiatives, in particular ong>theong> HealthyWorkplaces campaign, which have been implemented with ong>theong> active participationhttp://projects.cowiportal.com/ps/A019055/Documents/3 Project documents/Interim and final report/Final report October 2012/OSH ong>evaluationong>report_Final_submitted14 March 2013.docx

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