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A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language : with a preliminary ...

XXIV DISSERTATION. be

XXIV DISSERTATION. be affronted." A passive form is also given to the verb, as in Malay, by the inseparable prefix ka, which belongs both to the popular and ceremonial language; as from suduk or anuduk, and gochok or aiigochok, " to stab," kasuduk and kagochuk, " to be stabbed,"—the first belonging to the popular, and the last to the ceremonial language ; from chidra, " a fraud or cheat," kachidra, " to be defrauded or cheated ; " from anarita, itself derived from charita, " a narrative or tale," kacharita, " to be told or narrated ; " from pisah, pagat, and padot, " separate," kapisah, kapagat, and kapadot, " to be separated or divorced." When, with the passive in ka, the radical begins with a vowel, that of the particle is elided, and the initial of the radical is always o. Thus the radicals obor and obong, "to burn," give kobor and kobong, "to be burnt;" and ujar and uchap, " to say or speak," give kojar and kochap, " to be said or spoken." The third method of forming a passive consists in interposing, between the first letter of a radical and the rest of the word, the nasal n, preceded by the vowel i, making the syllable in. In this way are formed, for example, from charita, " a tale or narrative," chinarita, " to be told or narrated ; from pundut, " to take," pinundut, ; " to be taken " from sapa, ; " who," sinapa, " to be inquired after " from rayah or angrayah, " to plunder," rinayah, ; " to be plundered " from panggih, " to find " or " to encounter," pinanggih, " to be found " or " to be encountered." In all these forms of a passive, the sense is the same ; and with the exception of that which belongs to the ceremonial language, they may be used indifferently. None of them require, as is frequently the case with the Malay passives, a preposition. Thus, wong dipateni wong, is " a man killed by a man ; " wong wadon dipiigat bojone, is " a woman divorced from her husband." With the exception of the imperative, the Javanese moods are represented by auxiliaries or conjunctions. A potential is formed by the verbs oleh and kana for the ordinary language, and kengiug, kantuk, pikantuk, and angsal for the ceremonial. All these words signify "can" or "may." An optative is formed by the adverb muga,—in the ceremonial dialect, mugi. A conjunctive is formed by the conjunction if, which is lamun "

DISSERTATION. xxv for the ordinary, and yen, which may be used either for the ordinary or ceremonial dialect. The verb in its simplest form, and without any auxiliary, is the indicative, and it has not, as the Malay has, an interrogative form. The Javanese imperative affords, with the exception of the Javanese genitive, the only example that I am aware of in the Malayan languages of an inflexion. By affixing the vowel a to radicals ending in this vowel, or in a consonant, we have an imperative ; as from gawa, " to bear or carry," gawaa, " bear or carry thou ; " from ana, "to be," anaa, "be thou;" from balang, "to throw or pitch," balanga, "throw or pitch thou." AVlien the terminal vowel of the radical is e or i, the consonant y is interposed between them and the vowel a, and when it is o or u, the interposed consonant is w; as from gawe, "to do," gaweya, "do thouj" from ganti, "to change," gantiya, "change thou;" from burn, " to pursue," buruwa, " pursue thou ; " from nganggo, " to clothe, wear, or use," nganggowa, " clothe, wear, or use thou." Sometimes, however, the imperative, instead of terminating in a, takes instead the vowel e; as from lungguh, " to sit," lunggiihe, " sit thou." Another form of the imperative terminates in the syllable an ; as from kon, or akon, " to order or command," konan, " order thou ; " and from " undang, " to call," undangan, " call thou." Time, in the Javanese language, as in the Malay, is expressed by adverbs. A preterite, in the ordinary language, is expressed by the word wus, or a little more respectfully by wis, or awis and in the ceremonial, by sampun ; all of which mean, literally, " done," "already some time past," and also "enough." Future time is expressed by verbs which, for the ordinary language, are, bakal and arap, and for the ceremonial, ajang, arsa, and bad'e; all of which mean, literally, " to will or desire." The manner of forming verbal or abstract nouns in Javanese is much like that in Malay. They are formed by the affix an, alone, or by this combined with the prefix ka, or by the prefix in p, or again by this combined with the affix an. The following ai-e examples :—From begal, "a robber" or " to rob," kabegalau, "robbery;" from bachik, "good," kabachikan, "goodness or virtue;" from cling and emut, "to remember," kaelingau ;

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  • Page 7 and 8: GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY MALAY LANGUA
  • Page 9: THE BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT Si
  • Page 12 and 13: viii TREPACE. Mr. Marsdeiij my book
  • Page 15 and 16: A DISSERTATION AFFINITIES OF THE MA
  • Page 17 and 18: DISSERTATION. iii history refute th
  • Page 19 and 20: DISSERTATION. V the ideas which the
  • Page 21 and 22: DISSEETATION. vii they contain, jus
  • Page 23 and 24: DISSERTATION. ix this kind of circu
  • Page 25 and 26: DISSERTATION. xi fetta. Magellan ha
  • Page 27 and 28: DISSERTATION. xiii An examination o
  • Page 29 and 30: DISSERTATION. xv sabtu, "Saturday/'
  • Page 31 and 32: DISSEKTATION-. XvU inherent vowel.
  • Page 33 and 34: DISSERTATION. lix ABBREVIATIONS OF
  • Page 35 and 36: " the creator," literally, " he who
  • Page 37: DISSERTATION. xxiii Javanese anabra
  • Page 41 and 42: DISSERTATION. xxvii sdsaton, " wild
  • Page 45 and 46: DISSERTATION. xxxi the permutation
  • Page 49 and 50: VULGAR. Tagal. Samarang. Madura. Ba
  • Page 51 and 52: DISSERTATION. xxxvii usually stated
  • Page 53 and 54: DISSERTATION. xxxix easily intellig
  • Page 55 and 56: DISSERTATION. xli letter of the alp
  • Page 57 and 58: DISSERTATION, xliii as Sumeru, the
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  • Page 61 and 62: DISSEETATIOX. xlvii come along, and
  • Page 63 and 64: DISSERTATION. xlix had also settlem
  • Page 65: DISSERTATION. time ai'e sudah, tala
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  • Page 71 and 72: DISSERTATION. Ivii The ordinal numb
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  • Page 75 and 76: DISSERTATIOX, l^^i The only specime
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  • Page 79 and 80: DISSERTATION. Ixv case, which is fo
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  • Page 83 and 84: DISSERTATION. Ixix relation are not
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    MADURESE. Elan, Jaga, sans. Eutar.

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    DISSERTATION. hxvii words are forei

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    DISSERTATION. Ixxix three letters ^

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    " here ; ; ; DISSERTATION. Ixxxi "

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    DTSSERTATIOX. Ixxxiii themselves in

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    ^ DISSERTATION. hxxv advanced of th

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    — DISSERTATION, Ixxxvii vowel o,

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    BUGIS.

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    DISSERTATION. xci Bugis prouuuciati

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    DISSERTATION. xciii guages, the Sum

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    DISSERTATION. xcv Judging by these

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    DISSERTATION. xcvii much larger tha

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    ENGLISH. DISSEKTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. ci particles differ e

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    DISSERTATION. ciii considerable adv

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    DISSERTATION. CT voyages extended n

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    DISSEETATION. cvii each, and which

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    DISSERTATION, cix prefix one which

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    DISSERTATION. cxi for its genitive

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    DISSERTATION. cxiii inaralan ; plup

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    DISSERTATION. CXT Tagala or Bisaya,

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    DISSERTATION. cxvii The same corrup

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    cxx DISSERTATION. more in concrete

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    cxxii DISSERTATION. 25 of these wor

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    cxxiv

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    DISSERTATION. cxxvii western part o

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    DISSERTATIOX. c.Txix of his theory.

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    ; DISSERTATION. exxxi is coarse and

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    cxxxiv DISSERTATION. several words

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    cxxxvi DISSERTATION. but no observe

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    cxxxviii DISSERTATION. is formed by

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    cx\

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    DISSERTATION. cxli the changes prod

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    DISSERTATION. cxlv islands, or at l

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    DISSERTATION. cxlvii storm into the

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    in the Negro ; well-proportioned ;

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    DISSERTATION. cli of which it is h.

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION, cliii

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    MALAGASI. DISSERTATION.

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    DISSERTATION. clvii although, by vi

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    DISSERTATION. clix Polynesia. The p

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    DISSERTATION. clxi many miglit be c

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    DISSERTATION. clxiii- parts also of

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    DISSERTATION. ckv African Negro. Th

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    DISSERTATION. clxvii Proceeding eas

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    DISSERTATION. clxix On the authorit

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    « ^' -3 -^ . -^ .^ ^11 J a DISSERT

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    DISSERTATION. clxxiii The conclusio

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    DISSERTATION. clxxv and their conso

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    J DISSERTATION. clxxvii is to the s

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    DISSERTATION. clxxix eighteen verbs

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    DISSERTATION. clxxxi Boripar, and Y

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    DISSERTATION. clxx.\ui I proceed, t

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    clxx

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    cl>IxxxviH

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    DISSERTATION. cxci The names given

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    cxeiv DISSERTATION. of iron ordnanc

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    cxcvi DISSERTATION. The Malay and J

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    cxcviii DISSEETATION. prevalence of

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    cc DISSEKTATION. ENGLISH. MALAY. JA

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    DISSERTATION. coiii and "princess."

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    ccvi DISSEETATION. tliem, and that

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    ccviii DISSERTATION. name for the i

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    DISSERTATION. ccxiii not belong to

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    DISSERTATION. ccxv 'riie cultivated

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    DISSERTATION. cc.wii The influence

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    DISSERTATION. ccxix The first five

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    DISSERTATION". ccxxi Malayan, and a

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxiii Two languages

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    ENGLISH.

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    DISSERTATION. ccxxvii tlie Malayan,

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    DISSERTATION. barley (?), and the f

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    DISSERTATION, ccxxxiii Of this clas

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    ccxxxvi DISSERTATION. referring to

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    ccxxxviii

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    ccxl DISSERTATION. in 1000 of the w

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    ccxlii DISSERTATION. Pacific island

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    cexliv DISSERTATION. two synonymes

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    ccxl'vi DISSERTATION. west, and ext

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    ccxlvlii DISSERTATION. inhabitants.

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    ccl DISSERTATION. Thin, sleuder.

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    cclii DISSERTATION. less intermixtu

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    ccliv DISSERTATION. lying between t

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    cclvi BISSERTATIOX. that the migrat

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    cclvlii DISSERTATION. account, that

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    cclx DISSERTATION. immigration." *

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    cclxii DISSEETATION. " thousand," a

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    cclxiv DISSERTATION. au example of

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    cclxvi DISSEETATION. into Madagasca

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    cclxviii DISSERTATION. also, both t

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    cclxx DISSEETATION. " pepper fruit/

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    cclxxii DISSERTATION, expected, app

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    ccl.x DISSERTATION. Among the class

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    cclxxvi DISSERTATION. be added. In

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    cclxxvlii DISSERTATION. the assista

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    cclxxx DISSERTATION. by the arrival

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    cclxxxii DISSERTATION. ornamental m

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    cclxxxiv DISSERTATION. It may be ob

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    cclxxxvi DISSERTATION. termed provi

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    cclxxxviii DISSERTATION. and never

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    ccxc DISSERTATION. persons under Li

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    A GRAMMAR THE MALAY LANGUAGE. ORTHO

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    ORTHOGKAPHY. 3 distinct character f

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    OKTHOGEAPHY. 5 by Roman letters as

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    ab t PEONUNCIATION. 7 LETTERS OF TH

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    PARTS OF SPEECH. 9 the k is elided

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    NOUN. 11- rang buiiga ini; tarlalu

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    NOUN. 13 balakang, balik, susor, si

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    NOUN. lo D^ri may be rendered in En

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    NOLTN. 17 Antara and the two next p

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    NOUN. 19 naga makutaiia dariprida p

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    ADJECTIVE. 21 chantik, molek ; her

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    NUMERALS. 23 the system of numerati

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    PRONOUNS. 25 are used only in addre

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    PEONOUNS. 27 To the personal pronou

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    VERB. 29 the summit of the island.

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    VERB. 31 Transitive Verb.—A trans

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    VERB. 33 suwaraiia, sapurti buhih p

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    VERB. 35 as to a radical, by the af

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    VERB. 37 and the nasal ng substitut

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    VEKB. 59 from labuh, to anchor, par

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    VEK13. 4L miuer, aud also, a diggin

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    VERB. 4.;} words of the language^ l

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    VERB. 45 saudarafia, utus-mangutus,

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    VERB. ^T not easy to understand. Ji

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    Sakutika barwayang, a^-ampun barkuk

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    VERB. 51 Saorftng p^rampiian mud'a

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    VERB. 53 affix kan may be the prepo

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    generally some reference to an ante

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    KEDUFLlCATIOiS\ 57 constant occurre

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    SYNTAX. 59 The object follows the v

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    PROSODY. 61 PROSODY. The Malay lang

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMAEKS. 63 consists

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Go speech ;

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    MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. 67 Indian is

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    MlSCELLAiSEoUS REMARKS. 69 very cop

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    IDIOMS. 71 sister ; ayah and ayahan

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    HISTORY UF THE LANGUAGE. 73 the peo

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    DlALEGTSc 75 arisen^ more from the

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    LITER ATUKR. 77 author. All Malay l

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    LITERATURE. 79 like that of a rose

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    LITERATURE. 81 all drank, pledging

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    LITERATURE. 83 examples, in additio

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