15 Principles of Landscaping PURPOSE AND EXPECTED OUTCOMES This chapter discusses the principles and steps involved in landscape design. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to 1. Define the term landscaping and discuss its categories. 2. List and discuss the basic principles of landscaping. 3. Describe the steps involved in a landscape design. 4. Describe how plants are selected for a landscape. OVERVIEW Using plants outdoors to enhance the general view is not a modern-day invention. Although sometimes plants are used alone, at other times they are used in conjunction with nonplant elements such as sculptures, walkways, and fountains to create a view or environment that is aesthetically pleasing and nurturing to the human spirit (Figure 15–1). The key goals of landscaping design may be summed up into two—function and aesthetics. You may remember from an earlier chapter that horticulture is both a science and an art. Landscaping may be likened to using plants to paint a picture, with the open space as the canvas. One key difference is that unlike painting on canvas, the subjects in the picture are not static but change with time. The changes may be in form, size, and age. It takes time to stabilize plant characteristics, which can be controlled only with good maintenance. However, there is more to landscaping than appearance, even though aesthetics is what is most readily noticeable to most people and thus associated with the discipline. The landscape artist, properly called a landscape designer, can, with proper choice of plants and design or arrangement, elicit certain responses from people who use the landscaped area. 473
This books ( Financial Accounting: Practice and Principles ) Made by Jan Bebbington
The successful systems based formula for teaching financial accounting that gained such academic acclaim in its first and second editions, is back! Financial Accounting remains the student s favourite! The third edition is more streamlined, more user friendly and even more accessible. An in-depth, worked example from an actual partnership, brings alive for students the accounting issues involved in partnerships, a required topic of accreditation. Financial Accounting is based on a threefold approach: an organizational flow-model is used to locate financial accounting in its organizational context; this model is then used to derive a systematic logical approach to financial accounting and the construction of the financial statements; and the text attempts to forge a firm link between the traditional diet of introductory financial accounting and the wider issues of accounting theory. Financial Accounting is the ideal text for undergraduate Accounting students.
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