2. Shrubs. A shrub has no main trunk. Branches arise from the ground level on a shrub (Figure 2–5). It is woody and has secondary tissue. Shrubs are perennials and usually smaller than trees. Examples of shrubs are dogwood (Cornus spp.), kalmia (Kalmia spp.), and azalea (Rhododendron spp.). 3. Trees. Trees are large plants characterized by one main trunk (Figure 2–6). They branch on the upper part of the plant, are woody, and have secondary tissue. Examples include pine (Pinus spp.), oak (Quercus spp.), cedar (Cedrus spp.), and orange (Citrus sinensis). 2.3.3 COMMON STEM GROWTH FORMS The criterion for classification is how the stem stands in relation to the ground (Figure 2–7). There are several types of stem growth forms, the most common ones including the following: 1. Erect. A stem is erect if, without artificial support, it stands upright (stands at a 90-degree angle to the ground level). Because of the effect of strong winds and other environmental factors, an erect plant may incline slightly. Trees have erect stems. To adapt crop plants to mechanized harvesting, plant breeders have developed what are called “bush” cultivars. These plants have strong stems and stiff branches. 2. Decumbent. The stems of decumbent plants are extremely inclined, with the tips raised. An example is the peanut (Arachis hypogaea). 3. Creeping (or repent). A plant is described as creeping when it crawls on the ground, producing adventitious roots at specific points on the stem. Stems that grow horizontally in this fashion are called stolons. The strawberry plant (Fragaria spp.) has creeping stems. 4. Climbing. Climbers are vines that, without additional support, will creep on the ground. There are three general modes of climbing (Figure 2–8). Twiners are Erect Creeping Decumbent Declined FIGURE 2–6 A typical tree showing a welldefined, woody central axis. Certain species produce or can be manipulated to produce several stems. (Source: George Acquaah) FIGURE 2–7 Examples of the variations in the direction or method of stem growth. 2.3 Other Classification Systems (Operational) 45
(a) (b) FIGURE 2–8 A climbing plant. To climb, such plants have various structural adaptations for holding onto physical support nearby, such as a (a) stake or a (b) wall. (Source: George Acquaah) climbing plants that simply wrap their stringy stems around their support, as occurs in sweet potato (Ipomea batatas). Another group of climbers develop cylindrical structures called tendrils that are used to coil around the support on physical contact. An example of a plant that climbs by this method is the garden pea (Pisum sativum). The third mode of climbing is by adventitious roots formed on aerial parts of the plant, as found in the English ivy (Hedera helix) and Philodendron. 2.3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS Fruits can be classified on a botanical basis and for several operational purposes. Fruit A mature ovary. Botanical Classification Fruits exhibit a variety of apparent differences that may be used for classification. Some fruits are borne on herbaceous plants and others on woody plants. A very common operational way of classifying fruits is according to fruit succulence and texture on maturity and ripening. On this basis there are two basic kinds of fruits—fleshy fruits and dry fruits. However, anatomically, fruits are distinguished by the arrangement of the carpels from which they developed. A carpel is sometimes called the pistil (consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary), the female reproductive structure. A fruit is a mature ovary. The ovary may have one or more carpels. Even though the fruit is a mature ovary, some fruits include other parts of the flower and are called accessory fruits. Combining carpel number, succulence characteristics, and anatomical features, fruits may be classified into three kinds, simple, multiple, or aggregate (Figure 2–9). Simple fruits develop from a single carpel or sometimes from the fusing together of several carpels. This group of fruits is very diverse. When mature and ripe, the fruit may be soft and fleshy, dry and woody, or have a papery texture. There are three types of fleshy fruits. 46 Chapter 2 Classifying and Naming Horticultural Plants
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