24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design PURPOSE AND EXPECTED OUTCOMES This chapter is designed to discuss the field culture and handling of cut flowers and how they are used in creating floral displays. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to 1. List five plant species that make good cut flowers. 2. List five plant species that make good dried flowers. 3. Describe how cut flowers are managed for longevity. 4. Describe how flowers are dried for preservation. 5. Describe the principles of flower arranging. 6. List five tools or materials used by the florist. 7. Describe how plants are chosen in creating a floral design. 8. List four different floral designs. 9. Describe the steps in creating a floral design. [COLOR PLATES—see color plates 30 and 31 for additional chapter photos] OVERVIEW Flowering plants are frequently grown outside (in beds) or inside (in containers) to be enjoyed and admired as whole living plants in the landscape or interior plantscape. Flowers are used in a variety of ways to convey sentiments. For most of these uses, flowers are detached from the parent plant and used individually or in groups. As such, cut flowers (i.e., detached flowers) are an important part of the horticultural industry. Florists are the specialists who use cut flowers in their trade. To add value to cut flowers, florists often use them to create floral designs for a variety of occasions. Using cut flowers in this art form is called flower arranging. Whereas fresh cut flowers last for only a short period, flowers may be dried and preserved for a long time. Dried flowers may also be arranged into durable arrangements. Cut Flowers Flowers grown for the purpose of cutting for display in a container or for other uses. 681
Cut flower displays are found in restaurants and homes, as accessories to dressing (corsages and boutonnieres), at weddings (e.g., as a bridal bouquet), at funerals (e.g., as casket spreads and wreaths), on special occasions to express love and appreciation (e.g., Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day), and to offer congratulations (e.g., on graduation days). The use of flowers in this fashion is enormous. Some flowers are more suited than others for use as cut flowers. In fact, scientists have developed special qualities in some plants that are used this way to extend their postharvest lives and qualities. 24.1 CUT FLOWER SPECIES Many species used as cut flowers are herbaceous (Table 24–1). However, a number of woody species can be cultivated for cutting (Table 24–2). The most popular cut flower species are rose, carnation, and chrysanthemum. On the whole, the quantity of major cut flowers sold steadily declined between 1989 and 1998. The decline ranged from two-fold TABLE 24–1 Plant Selected Species Commonly Grown for Use as Cut Flowers Scientific Name African daisy Astroemeria Baby’s breath Celosia Cleome Carnation Cornflower Cosmos Chrysanthemum Cyclamen Freesia Kalanchoe Fountain grass Gerbera daisy Snapdragon Zinnia Nasturtium Globe amaranth Dimorphotheca sinuata Astroemeria spp. Gypsophila elegans Celosia plumosa Cleome hasslerana Dianthus caryophyllus Centaurea cyanus Cosmos bipinnatus Chrysanthemum spp. Cyclamen persicum Freesia refracta Kalanchoe spp. Pennisetum setaceum Gerbera jamesonii Antirrhinum majus Zinnia elegans Tropaeolum majus Gomphrena globosa TABLE 24–2 Selected Woody Species Used for Cut Flowers Plant Rose Buttersweet Redbud, eastern Red osier dogwood Hydrangea Nadina Pussy willow Forsythia Hollies Virburnum Beauty berry Weigela Scientific Name Rosa spp. Celastrus orbiculatus Cercis canadensis Cornus stolonifera Hydrangea arborescens Nadina domestica Salix matsudana Forsythia x intermedia Ilex spp. Virburnum spp. Callicarpa americana Weigela florida 682 Chapter 24 Cut Flowers and Floral Design
This books ( Financial Accounting: Practice and Principles ) Made by Jan Bebbington
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