19.16.1 CANE FRUITS Cane fruits are temperate fruits and include raspberry, blackberry, and hybrid berries (e.g., boysenberry, sunberry, and tayberry). They bear their fruits on long canes. These cane fruits, sometimes called brambles, are pruned in summer or winter to remove all of the canes that fruited in the previous season and any unwanted canes and suckers. An important consideration, in all pruning operations, is knowing where fruits will be borne on a plant. Some species, including many brambles, bear their fruits on canes produced in the previous season. Pruning removes all of the canes that fruited in the previous season. Pruning is also done in summer or winter when the plant is dormant. Also, weak canes and broken branches are cut off. Under such circumstances, plants must be pruned judiciously such that enough buds are left from the current season’s growth for production in the next season. Cane fruits can be trained on trellises or on a fence or wired wall. Fruiting and new canes occur simultaneously. Once harvested, the fruited canes are removed so that the new canes can be positioned for fruiting in the next season. The goal of pruning is to ensure that year-old canes are in position each season. Pruning of individual species differs slightly. Brambles The collective name for the fruits in the genus Rubus. 19.16.2 BUSH FRUITS Popular bush fruits include currant (black, red, and white), gooseberry, and blueberry. The goal of pruning these crops is to remove older and less productive wood to allow new and more vigorous shoots to grow. Horizontally growing wood is removed and the bush thinned to avoid overcrowding and improve circulation of air. This aeration decreases disease incidence. Black currant (Ribes nigrum) is produced as a “stooled” bush whereby the old wood is cut back close to the ground to allow a set of new shoots to develop. The highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbossum) can remain productive for a long time, and thus removing fruited wood is not necessary for several years. 19.17 PRUNING ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 19.17.1 PRUNING CONIFERS Conifers are cone-bearing plants. They may be low growing, as in prostrate junipers, and useful as ground covers. Some conifers are used as hedge plants. Ground Covers and Hedges Conifer hedges require pruning to maintain the desired shape, whereas ground covers seldom need it. Conifers have different branching habits. Some plants branch only once a year (as in pine, spruce, and fir), starting with the beginning of the season’s growth. This growth pattern results in circular (whorl) growth of branches at the growing tip. These plants lack latent buds on old wood and as such will not regrow when cut back severely. The candles (new growth) on the whorls may be shortened or pinched back while the needles are small to control growth (Figure 19–25). Junipers, on the other hand, branch as growth proceeds and produce fresh growth at the point of pruning. Junipers may be thinned or sheared. Pruning Coniferous Trees Coniferous trees commonly develop a single dominant central axis with an overall narrow pyramidal shape. This shape makes it impossible to shorten a mature plant without destroying its natural look. Some conifers such as junipers and digger pines have multiple central leaders and are more tolerant of height reduction. Conifers are amenable to pruning to fit symmetrical shapes. When pruning conifers, one should always cut back to visible buds and leave no stocks. Conifers tend to grow low branches. Pruning of some 19.17 Pruning Ornamental Plants 601
FIGURE 19–25 conifers. Pruning Remove top of candle of these branches may be necessary to provide for clearance under the tree. Conifers are best pruned in spring or early summer, when most (e.g., pine, cypress, cedar, and spruce) experience rapid growth. Some new growths (candles) may be removed or cut in half. Pruning Christmas Trees Christmas trees are characterized by a conical shape. To attain this desirable shape, growers maintain a schedule of shearing to produce plants that are symmetrical and of uniform canopy and density and with uniform spacing between branches. Shearing of Christmas trees may begin in the third or fourth growing season, depending on the species. It is important to shear pines in their active growing periods or no new buds will form near cuts and dieback may occur. In the case of species such as fir and spruce, shearing causes shoot growth to cease while buds form. These species may be sheared after new growth begins. Pines tend to lose their shape readily (they grow less tight) and hence require more frequent shearing than fir and spruce. The density of the canopy depends on how the central leader is headed. The first heading is done when the pine is about 12 inches (30.5 centimeters) tall. This lead shoot is headed again in the next and subsequent seasons (up to four years) in the same manner. If the lead shoot is cut short, the tree will be denser and more attractive but attain harvest height after additional growing seasons. Whorls of branches develop in tiers as the tree grows. Side shoots should be headed to about half the length of the lead shoot. The sides are sheared to approximately 50 percent taper. To facilitate harvesting, handling, and installation of the tree for display, up to about 12 inches (30.5 centimeters) of the trunk from the ground is pruned to leave a clean base. Pines characteristically have a conical or pyramidal shape. A significant difference between pines and broadleaf trees is that pines mostly have one axis that does not branch if cut back. Once a limb is removed, no replacement limb will be produced. When pruning, no stubs should be left. The limb should be cut back to a visible live bud. Christmas trees are sheared to obtain an attractive symmetrical and conical shape with uniformly dense foliage (Figure 19–26). Pine, spruce, and fir produce circular growth of branches (whorls) and branch once a year. To obtain a compact plant, the tips of the branches may be pinched. Once formed, the internode between whorls is fixed and cannot be shortened. 19.17.2 PRUNING NONCONIFEROUS SHRUBS Shrub problems in the landscape include the following: 1. Plant overgrowth. Shrubs may grow such that the canopy is too large. When this occurs, the size of the plant may be reduced by carefully removing the long side branches (thinning) or removing all large branches in the top of the shrub (dehorning). Thinning should be done such that the shape of the plant is not 602 Chapter 19 Pruning
This books ( Financial Accounting: Practice and Principles ) Made by Jan Bebbington
The successful systems based formula for teaching financial accounting that gained such academic acclaim in its first and second editions, is back! Financial Accounting remains the student s favourite! The third edition is more streamlined, more user friendly and even more accessible. An in-depth, worked example from an actual partnership, brings alive for students the accounting issues involved in partnerships, a required topic of accreditation. Financial Accounting is based on a threefold approach: an organizational flow-model is used to locate financial accounting in its organizational context; this model is then used to derive a systematic logical approach to financial accounting and the construction of the financial statements; and the text attempts to forge a firm link between the traditional diet of introductory financial accounting and the wider issues of accounting theory. Financial Accounting is the ideal text for undergraduate Accounting students.
To Download Please Click http://yp.filetrends.club/?book=1861527713