Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

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Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Biosphere - WBGU

International institutions K 2.4

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cable to thrash out guidelines or protocols for all of

the ‘Rio Conventions’.Therefore, the Council recommends

examining whether the process launched

under the auspices of the CBD could constitute an

element in a future overarching international regulation

on sustainable tourism.

K 2.4.7

Trade in endangered species: improving controls

and providing compensation

In the case of the species classified according to the

Convention on the International Trade in Endangered

Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) for

limited use (Appendix II), it should be ensured that

the profits derived from that use directly benefit the

preservation of species stocks, realization of preventive

measures and support for local subsistence communities.

The existing strategies for the appropriate

combination of conservation and use aspects should

be examined for weak points and supplemented

accordingly (Section D 3.4). Establishing admissible

export quotas should also be preceded by a scientific

evaluation of species stocks, habitat quality, etc.

There is also a continued need to develop individual

management plans focused on the range states and

their respective stocks for the sustainable use of

national biological diversity and benefit-sharing. The

controls and monitoring system for compliance with

CITES provisions must also be improved.To that end

the certification and corresponding recognition

methods (eg genetic testing) that facilitate distinction

between legally and illegally obtained specimens or

products of an endangered species must be

advanced. In the case of species excluded from use or

trade in accordance with CITES (Appendix I) the

strict trade regulations as foreseen in the convention

can cut off important revenue sources in certain

range states, particularly developing countries. The

German federal government should therefore at the

same time advocate compensatory measures for

these countries disadvantaged by the regulations.

One might think, for example, of compensatory payments

or an appropriate debt waiver.

K 2.4.8

Making progress on a legally binding instrument

for forest conservation

For a long time now the international community has

been endeavouring to achieve a global regulation for

forest management. A binding document failed at

UNCED in 1992.The result was a non-binding ‘Statement

of Principles for a Global Consensus on the

Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development

of all Types of Forests’ (WBGU, 1996). The

debate surrounding an international instrument is as

topical as ever. On the one hand, the topic of forests

can be dealt with in a special convention of its own

that would have to be agreed. On the other hand,

there is the possibility of adopting a forest protocol

under the auspices of the CBD. The Council has spoken

out in favour of a forest protocol under the auspices

of the CBD in the past and still considers this

solution to be the most promising (WBGU, 1995b).

In a new forest convention located within the FAO

and to be negotiated anew the equal status of conservation

and sustainable use that is already

enshrined in the CBD would first have to be

achieved. Given the lack of current international

enforceability of a protocol to the CBD, however, an

independent forest convention might in any case be

preferable to a merely non-binding continuation of

the discourse in an intergovernmental body (Section

I 4).

K 2.4.9

Strengthening UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere

programme

UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere programme

(MAB) established in 1970 is particularly important

because it combines individual areas into a worldwide

network (356 biosphere reserves, participation

of over 100 states) in which experiences and results

are exchanged and, for instance, transferred to comparable

regions. In 1995 the statutes were drawn up

for the network and a new strategy (Seville Strategy).

These documents provide a clear framework for the

programme and for individual biosphere reserves, eg

periodic reporting and evaluation is envisaged. In the

Seville Strategy the states are given a number of

objectives and recommendations, which provide not

just clear instructions for the design and management

of biosphere reserves with their modern, integrational

approach, but also form a bridge to the Biodiversity

Convention. It is the Council’s view that

these possibilities should be used to a greater extent

in the future, also in connection with corresponding

national strategies. This would include above all

application of the Seville Strategy and the further

development of the network of biosphere reserves.

The trend towards larger biosphere reserves better

linked with their environs and increasingly transnational

is something to be welcomed and should be

promoted further. Better use could be made of the

MAB programme as an instrument for international

cooperation on biosphere conservation. Since there

is no financing mechanism specifically for that pur-

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