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Management of Technology and Innovation in Japan

Management of Technology and Innovation in Japan

Preface

Preface and Introduction IX The book is organized in five parts, starting with a chapter on strategy, followed by chapters on organization, processes, cultural aspects and implementation We will briefly summarize the content of each chapter as follows: Part I: Strategic Aspects Sakakibara and Matsumoto address the issue of appropriating returns from innovation activities. They show how engineering of the product architecture may lead to inter-firm differences in appropriability and illustrate how Canon has been able to frequently shift added value between its devices and consumables in the copier and ink jet printer business. The authors suggest that Canon’s efforts for high appropriability have a historical background and that flexible change in product architecture is the key to its success. Takeishi and Aoshima study Shimano, a manufacturer of bicycle components, and show how Shimano has been able to perform well in an industry that is hit by recession and in which most companies experience considerable difficulties. Looking into its corporate history, the authors analyze how Shimano’s innovation and component integration activities have allowed it to capture a position that may be described as the “Intel of the bicycle industry”. Finally, the address the challenges lying ahead of Shimano and comment on how innovation may continue to be a driver of its corporate success. Kusunoki investigates how innovations may overcome commoditization in an industry and allow companies to regain customers’ willingness to pay. He stresses that conventional thinking, explicitly or implicitly assuming that innovations are dimensional phenomena, may be ineffective for creating differentiation and promoting consumers’ willingness to pay. Moreover, he argues that innovations along particular dimensions may do more harm than good for de-commoditization and firms preoccupied with such “dimensional thinking” of innovation may be entrapped even more into commoditization. Tomita and Fujimoto stress the increasing sophistication and diversification of customer needs. They show how companies are required to look beyond their customers, who are often intermediate users and have to consider the needs of end users, i.e. their customers’ customers. Analyzing the case of LUMIFLON, the authors define the downstream of the value chain as a “customer system,” and argue how an effective NPD pattern in a “customer system”-oriented manner should be through designed. Part II: Process Aspects Harryson describes the origins of the know-who based innovation process, which was born in Japan, but is increasingly applied throughout Asia. It aims at enhanced speed of innovation and reduced R&D risk through new processes that are

X Preface and Introduction no longer limited to intracorporate know-how, but leverage instead global knowwho. Drawing on examples from Canon and Sony he shows how targeted acquisition of external expertise may be combined with an organic approach to internal resource deployment for enhanced innovation performance in the network system as a whole. Beise argues that successful Japanese innovation management is not only rooted in general management techniques, strong relationships to suppliers and other commonly cited factors. He identifies the Japanese market context as an important driver for many globally successful innovations originating from Japanese companies. It is shown how characteristics such as a large domestic market at an early stage of the technology life cycle or a high penetration rate in the growth phase of the diffusion, and product designs or technological trajectories that were favored in Japan and later became economically advantageous worldwide have contributed to lower manufacturing costs or market knowledge and thereby benefited Japanese companies. Yasumoto and Fujimoto explore how Japanese firms successfully employ product technologies and associated product development capabilities in oversea markets. They analyze how close interfirm relationships between Japanese firms contribute to successful product/process development at home and how these close relationships may hinder Japanese firms from sufficiently exploiting technologies and capabilities in oversea markets. Drawing on the example of Japanese mobile phone handset manufacturers in the US, they show how interface capabilities, firmspecific interaction routines that enable the firm to assimilate significant knowledge from partner firms, could help Japanese firms to exploit accumulated technologies and associated product development capabilities in close interfirm relationships in oversea markets. Herstatt et al. report on the results of a large-scale study about typical front-endrelated innovation practices in 553 Japanese mechanical and electrical engineering companies. They explore typical activities concerning the generation and assessment of new product ideas, the reduction of technological as well as market uncertainty and front end planning. The authors also report on differences between successful and unsuccessful companies and show that front-end-related activities such as customer integration during idea assessment, systematic translation and integration of customer requirements as well as systematic planning contribute to project success. Haak analyzes the Toyota production system and examines how its different components have evolved into a process heavily contributing to Toyota’s global success. He identifies the central factors, which have influenced the development of the key features of the Toyota production system. In addition he addresses the issue of whether the dynamism, i.e. the constant process innovation and change inherent in the Toyota production system, forms the basis for its flexibility which

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  • Page 17 and 18: Table of Contents Part I: Strategic
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  • Page 21 and 22: List of Contributing Authors XXIII
  • Page 23 and 24: Designing the Product Architecture
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    40 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima mud,

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    42 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima Table

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    44 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima Shima

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    46 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima of th

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    48 A. Takeishi and Y. Aoshima parts

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    50 K. Kusunoki anticipating and sol

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    52 K. Kusunoki both manufacturers a

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    54 K. Kusunoki users. With the rele

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    56 K. Kusunoki existing performance

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    58 K. Kusunoki the LCD computer mon

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    60 K. Kusunoki In the home-use vide

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    62 K. Kusunoki systems with interna

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    64 K. Kusunoki visible dimensions e

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    66 K. Kusunoki Cocoon appears a goo

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    68 K. Kusunoki level system. To acq

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    70 K. Kusunoki music editing softwa

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    The Customer System and New Product

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    Part II: Process Aspects

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    88 S. J. Harryson An important sugg

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    90 S. J. Harryson Introducing a Kno

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    92 S. J. Harryson Their data also s

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    94 S. J. Harryson view of transacti

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    96 S. J. Harryson but never produce

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    98 S. J. Harryson Know-Who in Produ

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    100 S. J. Harryson Leveraging Intra

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    102 S. J. Harryson naka stated that

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    104 S. J. Harryson protect Canon’

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    106 S. J. Harryson Consequently, a

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    108 S. J. Harryson References Abegg

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    110 S. J. Harryson Johansson U and

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    Fig. 3. Japanese creativity with lo

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    The Domestic Shaping of Japanese In

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    144 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto low

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    146 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto in

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    148 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto sup

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    150 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Mea

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    152 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto com

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    154 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Jap

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    156 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    158 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto As

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    160 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    162 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto The

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    164 M. Yasumoto and T. Fujimoto Bru

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    Number of companies 250 200 150 100

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    N=551 “Fuzzy Front End” Practic

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    “Fuzzy Front End” Practices in

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    186 R. Haak The Toyota production s

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    188 R. Haak (1988, p. 3) pointed ou

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    190 R. Haak Essentially, the key fa

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    192 R. Haak movement of materials n

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    194 R. Haak ent from traditional me

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    196 R. Haak Total Quality Control (

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    198 R. Haak or shared with other co

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    200 R. Haak Görgens J (1994) Just

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    202 R. Haak Ohno T (1988) Toyota Pr

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    Part III: Organizational Aspects

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    208 K. Nobeoka Firms such as Toyota

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    210 K. Nobeoka to share technology

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    212 K. Nobeoka launched an initiati

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    214 K. Nobeoka only 23 departments

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    216 K. Nobeoka product introduction

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    218 K. Nobeoka 1993. Rather the cha

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    220 K. Nobeoka Second, Toyota also

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    222 K. Nobeoka and it was not often

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    224 K. Nobeoka The hierarchical chi

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    226 K. Nobeoka tion. Engineers can

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    228 K. Nobeoka believes that five d

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    230 K. Nobeoka Discussion and Concl

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    232 K. Nobeoka essential to support

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    234 K. Nobeoka Markides C and Willi

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    236 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto ownership

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    238 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto shares th

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    240 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Table 1.

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    242 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Based on

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    244 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Discussio

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    246 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto sourcing

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    248 D. Ge and T. Fujimoto Nishiguch

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    250 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    252 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    254 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    256 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    258 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    260 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    262 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    264 C. Herstatt, C. Stockstrom, and

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    Part IV: Cultural Aspects

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    270 C. Nakata and S. Im have not be

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    272 C. Nakata and S. Im ucts, such

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    274 C. Nakata and S. Im customers a

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    276 C. Nakata and S. Im New Product

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    278 C. Nakata and S. Im Measures We

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    280 C. Nakata and S. Im analysis in

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    282 C. Nakata and S. Im Managerial

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    284 C. Nakata and S. Im derstanding

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    286 C. Nakata and S. Im Fukuyama F

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    3.94 To adapt products to local req

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Differences in the Internationaliza

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    Acknowledgment Differences in the I

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    Global Innovation and Knowledge Flo

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    330 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    332 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    334 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    336 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    338 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    340 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    342 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    344 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    346 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    348 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    350 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    352 C. Herstatt, B. Verworn, and A.

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    Objectives of IP management To cont

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    Technology Planning Function From P

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    From Practice: IP Management in Jap

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    MoT: From Academia to Management Pr

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    Index 3G 148 f., 152 5 S process 19

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    Japanese consumers 125, 129, 135 Ja

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