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Islams Reformers

The bigotry of the religion reformers or bigots of science who surfaced lately to blame all previous scholars, basic fundamental beliefs or practices

The ’ulamâ’ of Ahl

The ’ulamâ’ of Ahl as-Sunna obeyed this prohibition strictly and stated that religious men’s getting involved in politics would be the same as holding burning fire. It is idiocy to stand against power, to revolt against the government, since it is to throw oneself into danger, which is harâm. It is not permissible for a Muslim visiting non-Muslim countries to harm unbelievers’ property, lives or chastity. One can receive benefit from unbelievers by pleasing them. It is more important to observe the rights of dhimmîs, unbelievers living in dâr al-Islâm, and of the harbîs, unbelievers coming as guests, tourists and merchants to the Muslim country, than it is to observe Muslims’ rights. It is worse to attack or even to backbite and slander them than it is to attack Muslims. Muslims are never idle. They become powerful by studying religious and scientific knowledge hard. Thus, they become victorious and dominant. For a Muslim, jihâd does not mean to rise in rebellion against the government but to spread the religious knowledge. Ibn ’Âbidîn wrote, “Certain sins become mubâh (permissible), and even fard (obligatory), under the oppression of a sultân or another cruel ruler who employs coercive methods, such as threats of death, imprisonment and torture, to get you to commit those sinful acts. It is sinful to disobey his commandments.” It is written on the 91st page of Berîqa, “A hadîth says, ‘Obey your commanders!’ Even if your commander is the most inferior one among you, it is wâjib to obey his orders agreeable with Islam. A sinful command should never be obeyed, regardless of whose command it is; yet it will be obeyed if disobedience causes fitna, for, as written in Ashbâh, it is permissible to commit minor harm in order to escape grave harm. It is wâjib to do the mubâh commanded by the ruler.” ’Abd al-Ghanî an-Nablusî wrote on the 143rd page of al-Hadîqa, “It is not wâjib to obey a sultân’s commands if they reflect his personal thoughts and predilections. If he is unjust, coercive and oppressive, however, it becomes a necessity to obey also his orders and prohibitions disagreeable with Allâhu ta’âlâ’s rules. In fact, if the sultân commands that those who disobey him should be killed, it is not permissible for anybody to throw himself into danger. Detailed information on this subject is given in my commentary to Hadiyyatu ibni ’l-’Imâd and in the book al-Matâlib al-wafiyya.” Ibn ’Âbidîn wrote in the subject on ‘Bâghî’: “When Muslims freely perform ’ibâdât and live in peace in a country, it is not permissible for them to rebel against the government. If the – 208 –

government oppresses and if opposing this oppression causes fitna, it is not permissible in this case, too. Helping such a ruler is a support given to cruelty. One should not help those who disobey him, either, for, one should not help in an action that is not permitted. [1] Those who rebel, for the purpose of seizing power, against the government that does not oppress people are called ‘bâghîs’, and in this case Muslims should help the State against them. For a hadîth declares, ‘May Allâhu ta’âlâ damn him who wakes fitna!’ If the rebels call the government and Muslims ‘disbelievers’ and attack Muslims’ property and lives, they are called ‘Khârijîs’. Likewise, today, some people called Wahhâbîs [2] attack other Muslims and call them ‘disbelievers’ because they do not believe as they do. Since this behaviour is (one of those acts that are) definitely harâm, they themselves become disbelievers by doing so. Regardless of whether the sultân is fairminded or cruel, it is wâjib to obey his commandments agreeable with the Sharî’at. If the Khalîfa is a murtadd or insane or unable to practice Islam he is to be dismissed. If his dismissal would cause fitna and his staying in office would be less harmful, he is to be tolerated. If a Muslim assumes the office of Khalîfa by subjugation and force and seizes power, he is to be obeyed. A governor appointed by a non-Muslim government is obeyed if he practises Islamic rules. If he cannot put Islamic rules into practise, or if the governor is a kâfir, too, Muslims elect one from among them as muftî or head. The muftî practises Islamic rules. If this is not possible, either, which means a life of slavery, a possible fitna should be avoided. As it is understood from this passage, the fatwâ signed by Shaikh al-Islâm Hasan Hayrullah Effendi under duress for the dethronement of Sultân ’Abdul’azîz Khân and the fatwâ signed - when the fatwâ officer Hâji Nûrî Effendi refused to sign- by a bigot threatened with death for the dethronement of ’Abdulhamîd Khân II were not mashrû’ (legal). It is written in the twelfth volume of Türkiye Târîhi (History of Turkey) that these fatwâs were not sahîh and were based on absolute falsehoods. Therefore, the two Sultans were the mashrû’ Khalîfas till they passed away. And because of this turpitude, the Ottomans lost the wars of “93” (with Russia in 1877-1878) and “Balkan” and the [1] The greatest cruelty is to prevent Muslims from performing ’ibâdât and from teaching religious knowledge to their children, to cause them to commit harâm and to spoil their îmân. [2] Please see our publications Advice for the Muslim, Endless Bliss, II, 34, and Confessions of a British Spy for details about Wahhâbîs. – 209 –

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