8 months ago

Islams Reformers

The bigotry of the religion reformers or bigots of science who surfaced lately to blame all previous scholars, basic fundamental beliefs or practices

and the next he is

and the next he is responsible for everything he does. But there is also al-Irâdat al-Kulliyya (Total Free Will) that does not leave man’s will and option alone. Man cannot decide on whether he is capable or incapable. It is very difficult to solve this problem. It would be quite right to say that it is a puzzle having no equal in the world. Hadrat Abû Mansûr al-Mâturîdî interprets the âyat, “You wish only what Allâhu ta’âlâ wills,” as “Allahu ta’âlâ’s Will united with your will. When you will you find His Will present.” According to al-Ash’arî, this âyat does not unite but relates Allâhu ta’âlâ’s will with man’s will and it wants men to will good things. It means that such will of theirs will get power from the Divine Will and that man’s will like his every action needs Allâhu ta’âlâ’s permission. The âyat, “They do not have will and option,” was said about the disbelievers of Quaraish who said, “That Qu’rân should have been sent down to one of the notables of Mecca or Medina,” and it meant that men did not have the will of appointing the Prophet. The âyat, “Allâhu ta’âlâ gets between man and his own heart,” was revealed in order to declare, as it is explained in the Qur’ân commentary by al-Baidawî, that Allahu ta’âlâ sees and knows the secrets in the hearts. As for the hadîth reporting the conversation between Âdam and Mûsâ (’alaihima ’s-salâm) and the former’s victory, according to the Ahl as-Sunna scholars, in the disliked action of Hadrat Âdam, kasb (acquirement), qadâ’ and qadar and tawba (repentance) came together. Repentance and acquirement cancelled each other like two opposite electric charges. There only remained qadar, and it is said that no one could be blamed for qadâ’ and qadar. After the part concerning Hadrat Âdam of what he did was corrected by his repentance, that part concerning his descendants, that is, that it caused men to live on the earth, is of Divine qadar for men. The above-mentioned âyats about that deeds happen only from Allâhu ta’âlâ’s will are meant for cases when qadar turns into qadâ’. Man begins to do the action predestined in qadar with his own will, and after Allâhu ta’âlâ wills it also, the action turns into qadâ’, that is, it happens. Then, when the actions in qadar turn into qadâ’, man’s will cannot change it; felicity and misfortune cannot go back. The âyat, “We have barricaded them on their front and back. We have put a blind before their eyes; they will not see any more,” in the sûrat Yâ Sîn, and the âyat, “Allâhu ta’âlâ has sealed their hearts and put a covering over – 48 –

their ears and eyes,” at the beginning of the sûrat al-Baqara refer to this fact. These âyats indicate in addition that those who somehow attain love of Allâhu ta’âlâ will be protected and led to the right path, and those who cause the Divine Wrath will be abandoned to their evil deeds. Very delicate and subtle actions may cause this love or this wrath. For this reason, man should be very careful towards Allâhu ta’âlâ. Before the actions in qadar turn into qadâ’, man’s will and option is in his own power, though he may be influenced by exterior effects. Men have will and are free in their thoughts and actions. Yet their thoughts and actions are related to some reasons, which do not deprive men of being free because they exercise will also without these reasons and they will and do without any reason. When man does not will while there are reasons, the action does not happen most of the time. If the existence of reasons necessitated the action to be done, Allâhu ta’âlâ’s will and option also would be ineffective. Before man wills to do an action, he thinks about it in his mind. Then he wills the alternative which influences him more. A salesman sells to the customer who will pay more. This customer is not forced to buy. The salesman is sort of compelled to sell to the one who pays more. If someone happens to anger him by saying, “You cannot sell it to the one who pays less”, different issues and additional considerations will influence his selling. Allâhu ta’âlâ, through the religions He has revealed, has declared to men good and evil deed and His blessings and punishments, which are retributions for them, thus He has prepared reasons for man’s will. On the other hand, He has also created in man’s mind reasons and thoughts which may lead him to good or evil ways and which struggle and dispute with one another. If, after the struggle between the reason which Allâhu ta’âlâ has declared and those which He has created in the human mind, the good alternative has more influence on man, he wills the good. For example, if an official who knows about the rules and regulations requiring that he should work well does not follow the rules, for instance, if he takes bribes, some reason in his mind, having more influence than the prohibition of the rules, has compelled him to commit this corrupt deed. He could not help an action which should not have been done, and he has done it. Though the money offer and the love of money which Allâhu ta’âlâ has created in the human mind have compelled his will and option to take bribes, the law will not approve it. – 49 –

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