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Advances in E-learning-Experiences and Methodologies

Telematic Environments

Telematic Environments and Competition-Based Methodologies As Yu et al. (2002) state, some previous research showed that competition has a negative effect on interpersonal relationship, emotional states, and group process. Those studies were conducted in face-to-face situations, in which the identities of the participants cannot be hidden without networking technological support. However, the authors state that it remains to be seen whether the negative effects of face-to-face competition can be mitigated with the anonymity inherent in network competition and synchronous e-learning environments. Chang et al. (2003) evaluate the effectiveness of the Joyce system and successfully observe that most students think that playing a game is a good way to learn, since it allows them to memorize much knowledge. Besides, they state that the system increases motivation, as their studies revealed that students want to read more articles and books to find answers and to win the game. Philpot et al. (2005) develop some computerbased interactive games for learning some specific engineering subjects. Those games make use of repetition and carefully constructed levels of difficulty in order to help students to get a better performance in their learning. Students can participate in games at their own pace but in a competitive way. As in the examples described above, students’ quantitative ratings and comments to these games were very positive. Even more, students who used games scored significantly higher on quizzes than those who learned via traditional lectures. In all these examples, it has been shown the success of different learning strategies. But, how do we choose one of them? choosIng A LeArnIng strAtegy As it has been said before, the choice of a learningteaching strategy implies several considerations. The first thing to take into account is the desired cognitive activity, that is, the goals of learning, the type of skills or abilities to be developed, and the desired level of cognition: from the recall of information to more abstract levels such as synthesis and evaluation, following the Bloom’s taxonomy of learning. Once identified the goals and skills to be developed, it is necessary to develop strategies and activities to lead students to the desired level of cognition. Moreover, when designing the global strategy or concrete classroom activities, it should be taken into account, not only the desired cognitive activity, but also the students’ motivation. Therefore, instructors should try to adapt their learning strategies to the most common individual learning styles of their students, and then choose the ICT tools that can better support the selected strategies. motivation In general, it can be asserted that motivation has a great influence on the learning process. It stands to reason that if students want to learn they will get more involved in the learning process, getting, then, a better performance. There are several factors that influence motivation, such as the connection of educational activities to the real world or the achievement of activities that facilitate the constructive learning. The key is that a well designed and executed learning strategy involves motivation; and this is the reason why the work of the teacher during the educational design is so important. Motivation is even more critical in a distance learning context, in which the teacher cannot interact with students in a face-to-face way. In these cases, interactivity can be used as an element of motivation in order to capture and hold the students’ interest. The teacher should provide an interactive and dynamic environment to compensate for the physical distance. Even more, if it is well designed, results could be improved.

Telematic Environments and Competition-Based Methodologies Hislop (1999) presents some interesting data obtained when evaluating a learning experience developed completely online: 95% of students felt that they had better access to the instructor, and 43% felt that they actually communicated with the instructor more than they would in a traditional class. These data confirm the hypothesis that Web tools facilitate the interaction between the teacher and the student. However, 51% of students missed face-to-face lectures, 40% felt that they had to work harder in the online course, and 15% felt that the online class was more boring than a traditional class. These data reflect, on the one hand, the benefit of considering telematic systems as additional resources to be used taking into account the students’ profile and the educational, social, and professional context. On the other hand, they reflect the idea that online education does not work well for everyone, since the success also depends on the different learning styles. Learning styles The interactivity provided by the Web seems to be positive, since it is a good motivation element. However, as it has been mentioned along this chapter, it must be always taken into account the different learning styles. Results from Mehlenbacher, Miller, Covington, & Larsen (2000) show that, in a Web environment, reflective and global learners are performing better than active and sequential learners. They conclude that reflective learners, who prefer solitary, quiet problem-solving as opposed to group discussion of problems, may have been more comfortable in the online courses. This result surprised them somewhat, since they assumed that their “interactive” Web site would favour active learners. However, attempting to emulate the interactivity of a face-to-face class on the Web has a high level of difficulty. It is also important to consider, as some authors highlight (Burd & Buchanan, 2004), that, even if individuals are usually strong in one learning style, in general, they will exhibit multiple learning styles depending on factors such as age, personality, culture, and environment. Agreeing with this principle, we believe that not every student must be treated in the same way, and that a set of activities that contribute to facilitate the learning process of the different students must be proposed by the team of teachers. The idea is to respect diverse talents and ways of learning (Chickering & Ehrmann, 1996): students need opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that adapt better to their learning styles. Therefore, teachers must apply different learning techniques: collaborative learning, practical sessions, self-assessments, and so forth, when designing their classes. However, we also believe that students must be adequately prepared to successfully undertake their professional careers. Then, teachers should focus on the use of active strategies where cooperative and competitive learning activities, and not only individual learning activities, take place. As it has been explained before, although motivation is one of the most positive aspects of collaborative work, some students feel more motivated through competition. Team competition has a dual nature; it is both competitive and collaborative and, therefore, offers a lot of possibilities when facing a heterogeneous group of students. This could be taken into account when selecting and designing a learning strategy. When designing a competitive learning strategy, besides the selection of individual or team competition, other factors should be analyzed, since the competitive methodology can be anonymous or of known authorship, faceto-face or distance located, and so forth. At this moment, the possibilities of networking should be considered. use of Ict ICT is a useful tool to support pedagogical principles. Yet, for each learning strategy we must ensure that the right technology is applied. 0

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    Advances in E-Learning: Experiences

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    Table of Contents Preface .........

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    Chapter III Philosophical and Epist

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    of constructive and cooperative met

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    Chapter XIV Open Source LMS Customi

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    contents, learning contexts, proces

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    xv these organizations do not get a

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    xvii QuALIty In e-LeArnIng Before t

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    allow that the teachers in training

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    xxi ISO. (1986). Quality-Vocabulary

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    Chapter I RAPAD: A Reflective and P

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    RAPAD in fields such as law, engine

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    RAPAD mystery to the new student. B

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    RAPAD example, whereas Laurillard h

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    RAPAD Ontologically, systems philos

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    RAPAD information related processes

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    RAPAD methods and techniques accord

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    RAPAD 2. An introduction to learnin

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    RAPAD then asked to reflect on and

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    RAPAD Figure 4. A rich picture to h

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    RAPAD Again using techniques from t

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    RAPAD university preparation course

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    RAPAD The third interface is at the

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    RAPAD Knight, P.T., & Trowler, P. (

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    RAPAD AddItIonAL reAdIngs Goodyear,

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning t

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning (

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning s

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning r

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning o

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning n

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning M

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    A Heideggerian View on E-Learning W

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Philisophical and Epistemological B

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    Chapter IV E-Mentoring: An Extended

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    E-Mentoring However, what is unders

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    E-Mentoring baugh, & Williams, 2004

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    E-Mentoring Table 2. Contact. Diffe

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    E-Mentoring Table 10. Ethical impli

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    E-Mentoring Table 15. Technology st

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    E-Mentoring Table 21. Coaching. Bes

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    E-Mentoring Table 27. Moment. Best

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    E-Mentoring Moreover, existing rese

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    E-Mentoring Kasprisin, C. A., Singl

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    E-Mentoring Ensher, E. A., Heun, C.

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    Chapter V Training Teachers for E-L

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning FL

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ne

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning A

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning yo

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning Di

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    Training Teachers for E-Learning ht

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    The Role of Institutional Factors i

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    E-Learning Value and Student Experi

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Integrating Technology and Research

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    Chapter IX AI Techniques for Monito

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    AI Techniques for Monitoring Studen

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    Chapter X Knowledge Discovery from

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Knowledge Discovery from E-Learning

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    Formative Online Assessment in E-Le

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    0 Chapter XVII Designing an Online

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Designing an Online Assessment in E

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Quality Assessment of E-Facilitator

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    Chapter XIX E-QUAL: A Proposal to M

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    E-QUAL is proposed to evaluate the

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    E-QUAL provide competent, service-o

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    E-QUAL 2004; Scalan, 2003) and qual

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    E-QUAL benchmarks address technolog

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    E-QUAL E-learning added two differe

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    E-QUAL Table 6. Application of the

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    E-QUAL Future trends The future of

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    E-QUAL (EQO) co-located to the 4 th

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    E-QUAL SMEs: An analysis of e-learn

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    E-QUAL Meyer, K. A. (2002). Quality

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    Compilation of References Argyris,

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    Compilation of References Biggs, J.

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    Compilation of References Cabero, J

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    Compilation of References Comezaña

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    Compilation of References Downes, S

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    Compilation of References Fandos, M

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    Compilation of References national

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    Compilation of References Hudson, B

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    Compilation of References Harbour.

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    Compilation of References Little, J

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    Compilation of References Metros, S

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    Compilation of References ONeill, K

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    Compilation of References Preece, J

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    Compilation of References Sadler, D

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    Compilation of References Shin, N.,

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    Compilation of References tional Co

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    Compilation of References Vermetten

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    Compilation of References Yu, F. Y.

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    About the Contributors Juan Pablo d

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    About the Contributors part: “An

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    About the Contributors María D. R-

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    About the Contributors Applications

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    Index e-learning tools, automated p

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    Socrates 55 Sophists 55 student-foc

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