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130218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final

3. National and Regional

3. National and Regional Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation This section focuses on the national and regional strategy on climate change adaptation, if applicable. It includes a description of three main sections: • The commitments in place at the national level within the international environment (UNFCCC) and the agreements that have been signed for CC, • The national strategy, its goals and commitments, etc., and • The regional strategy, if applicable, based on the national one, and the specificities the region faces. 3.1. The commitments in place at the national level The Egyptian Government responded early to climate change and signed the following environmental agreements, namely: • Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), 1992, • Kyoto Protocol, 1999, and • Paris Agreement - new global climate change agreement, December 2015. On December 12, 2015, Paris Climate Change Agreement was approved by the 196 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention of the Climate Change (UNFCCC) at COP21 in Paris - France. Egypt signed the Paris Climate Agreement on 22 nd of April 2016 in Paris signature ceremony where 175 participated but has not yet ratified it. “We respect the experience of others, but we will do it our way. We will ask for your support, but we will look after the well-being of the Egyptian people,” Minister of Environment declared. On November 11, 2015 Egypt submitted its new climate action plan to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) comes in advance of Cop21. The Paris agreement already entered into force, empowering all countries to prevent average global temperatures rising above 2 degrees Celsius and to reap the many opportunities that arise from a necessary global transformation to clean and sustainable development. Egypt’s INDCs was developed in accordance with Decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20 of the Arab Republic of Egypt The INDCs set a series of measures intended to be applied by the country to face climate change in terms of adaptation (to climate change impacts) and mitigation (reducing GHG emissions). It includes the following three main elements: • National circumstances that address general economic conditions, including economic and population growth rates, major sustainable development goals (SDGs), and political circumstances; • National efforts implemented to combat climate change in Egypt, in terms of treating impacts in different sectors (agriculture, water resources, coastal zones, etc.) or efforts made to reduce GHGs emissions in different sectors (energy, transportation, industry, etc.); and • Required implementation mechanisms to achieve the objectives of the plan (funding, capacity building, and technology transfer) 47 . 47 http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Egypt/1/Egyptian%20INDC.pdf 86

The national strategy, its goals and commitments, sectors affected In 2007, Egypt established its National Committee on Climate Change's decision in order to develop strategies and policies to deal with CC. As a result, several strategies, policies have been developed, mostly with the support of international donors, including: • Initial National Communication on Climate Change, Egypt, 1999 – MoEnv and EEAA 48 • Second National Communication on Climate change, Egypt, 2010 – EEAA and UNDP 49 • Third National Communication on Climate change, Egypt, 2014 – EEAA and UNDP 50 • National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction 2011, (NSACCDRR) – UNDP 51 • National Air Quality Policy 2015, NAQP – UNEP 52 • Egypt’s Indicators Development • National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) 2015 – GIZ. The Egyptian Cabinet – Information and Decision Support Centre (IDSC) - in collaboration with the UNDP have developed Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NSACCDRR) in December 2011. The NSACCDRR’s main objective is to increase the flexibility of the Egyptian community when dealing with the risks and disasters that might be caused by climate change and its impact on different sectors and activities. It also aims at strengthening the capacity to absorb and reduce the risks and disasters to be caused by such changes. The Economic Cooperation and Development Division (SECO) of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs from Switzerland has developed measures based on collaboration with Egyptian government, to address the strategy objective No.3: Support basic environmental infrastructure: • Contribute with technology and know-how transfer to improve the infrastructure with a positive effect on the environment, the climate and employment. • Sectorial activities include water supply, wastewater treatment, waste management (solid and liquid toxic waste), renewable energy and energy efficiency, and urban sustainability. 48 Egypt’s first National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 1999, EEAA - Available on: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync1.pdf/ (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 49 Egypt’s Second Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on May 2010, EEAA and UNDP, 2010 - Available on: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/egync2.pdf/ (Accessed: 08.08.2016) 50 Egypt’s Third Nation Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), report issued on June 2014, EEAA and UNDP, 2014 - Available on: http://www.eg.undp.org/content/dam/egypt/docs/Environment%20and%20Energy/Signed%20TNC%20Project%20Document.pdf/ (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 51 Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NSACCDRR), 2011- available at: http://cairoclimatetalks.net/sites/default/files/Adaptation%20Strategy%20-%20Final%20-%20E.pdf (Accessed: 24.08.2016) 52 http://www.egyptictindicators.gov.eg/en/Pages/default33.aspx/ 87

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