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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

termed idiocy

termed idiocy (balâdat). A person suffering from this inadequacy cannot differentiate between vice and virtue. When the practical power of nutq (wisdom) exists in an average intensity, this state is called justice (’adâlat). There cannot be paucity or plentitude in justice. The second power of the sources of morals is wrath (ghadab). It is the bestial aspect of the soul. Things which it dislikes and loathes stir its blood. When this force is subdued to a reasonable intensity by the human aspect of the soul, it develops into bravery (shajâ’at), which prompts man to practical and useful enterprises. Examples of this are Muslims’ fighting against disbelievers whose numbers are more than double theirs and their saving the oppressed from their oppressors. An excess in this force is tahawwur, which causes aggressiveness. A person with this temperament becomes angry fast. If this power exists in less than average proportions, it is called cowardice (jubn). A person having this character will not be able to attempt to do the necessary actions. The third power of the human soul is appetite (shahwat). It is the bestial soul’s desiring the things that it likes. The human aspect of the soul mollifies this desire into what we call chastity (iffat), or honor. A person who has chastity gratifies the needs of his nature in a manner prescibed by Islam and compatible with humanity. Excess in this is called greed or debauchery (sharah). A person having this character tries to obtain all his desires and wishes without regard to laws or others’ rights. When appetite is less than average proportions in one’s nature, it causes a lazy character (humûd). A person with this character will not even try to get things that are necessary for himself either because of his extreme sense of shame, fear or pride, or because of his (psychological) illness. The aforesaid four temperate forces, i.e. hikmat (reason), ’adâlat (justice), iffat (chastity), and shajâ’at (bravery), are the essence of all virtues. When a person adapts himself to hikmat, which is one of the three forces of the soul, he overcomes the other two forces of the bestial soul, i.e., ghadab and shahwat, and attains happiness by developing these two excesses into iffat (chastity) and shajâ’at (bravery). If the theoretical force of wisdom fails to abide by hikmat, which is its temperate degree, and overflows unto either one of the vicious extremities, vices will appear. All six extremities are always evil. In fact, even the four – 14 –

temperate forces are evil when they are employed for evil purposes. Examples of employing hikmat for evil purposes are: to go into a religious career for the purpose of an easy competence or a high position, and to perform (the daily prayers termed) namâz or (the struggle for the promulgation and propagation of Islam, which should be done only to please Allâhu ta’âlâ and which is termed) jihâd for ostentation. On the other hand, abstention from a certain kind of pleasure in order to gratify one’s desire to enjoy another kind of pleasure would be a good example of misusing iffat. Each of the four main virtues is recognized by their attributes. For example, wisdom has seven attributes. Bravery and chastity have eleven attributes each. REMEDY FOR THE VICES: A medicine that would be a common cure for all the vices is the recognition of the illness and things that are harmful to it, its cause, its opposite case, as well as effects of the medicine. The next step would be the diagnosis of the illness, which is done either by self-research or under the supervision of a guide, i.e. an ’âlim (a deeply learned Islamic scholar). A Believer is another Believer’s mirror. Self-diagnosis of one’s faults is a difficult task. A recommendable way of knowing your own faults, therefore, would be to consult with a dependable friend. A faithful friend is one who will protect you against dangers and fearful situations. Such a friend is hard to come by. It is to this effect that Imâm Shâfi’î ‘rahmatullâhi ’aleyh’ stated: A staunch friend and true medicine, Are hard to find, waste not your time. And Hadrat ’Umar ‘radiy-Allâhu ’anh’ stated: My friend’s warned me about my fault, This is the true essence of brotherhood. Since your adversaries will always be seeking ways for criticizing you, they will fling your shortcomings to your teeth once they find them. Such inimical comments therefore can be exploited as efficient references to learn about your faults. Good friends, by contrast, will mostly be inclined to overlook your faults. One day, someone begged Hadrat Ibrâhîm Ad-ham, (a great Islamic scholar and a Walî,) to tell him about his faults and shortcomings. “I have made a friend of you. So, all your manners and ways appear nice to me. Ask someone else about your – 15 –

  • Page 1 and 2: Hakikat Kitabevi Publications No: 1
  • Page 3 and 4: ETHICS OF ISLAM PREFACE Let’s sta
  • Page 5 and 6: Kâshifî of Hirat. We translated t
  • Page 7 and 8: organs, to give orders to the organ
  • Page 9 and 10: ISLAMIC ETHICS FIRST CHAPTER The fi
  • Page 11 and 12: to the sects of Barnabas and Arius
  • Page 13: is evil, all the organs will be evi
  • Page 17 and 18: committing sins. Therefore, they do
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  • Page 25 and 26: (Allâhu ta’âlâ) Who sendeth th
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  • Page 33 and 34: The third reason why one wants to a
  • Page 35 and 36: much for him. When some of the Sah
  • Page 37 and 38: “furu”) of Imâm a’zam Abû H
  • Page 39 and 40: production. Desires of the nafs are
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  • Page 43 and 44: are sunnat, he will be deprived of
  • Page 45 and 46: true four Madhhabs as long as there
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    12- CONCEIT (KIBR) The twelfth mala

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    from the Wrath of Allâhu ta’âl

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    others’ rights will enter Paradis

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    sashay around, his skirts sweeping

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    as long as they do not intermingle

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    oasting will lead them to Hell. In

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    introduce this way of happiness and

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    sal-lam’. If the heart, soul and

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    was Imâm Ahmad bin Hanbal ‘rahim

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    perpetrated iniquities which no one

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    and thus provided opportunity for t

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    as-sunnat scholars” or trusts whi

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    school in their childhood; nor afte

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    A poem: To be happy all the time, T

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    hadîth-i-sherîf incidentally serv

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    epresented others by proxy as well

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    Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alai

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    categories are not recorded by the

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    disquietude and a heart palpitating

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    not possess. Giving advice (nasîha

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    two Muslims meet each other, it is

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    the sins he will accumulate will be

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    inclusive. It cannot confined into

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    Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alai

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    âyat of Sûra Nisâ of the Qur’

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    neither proper nor permissible for

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    ‘alaihis-salâm’ knew that the

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    ta’âlâ will love, protect and h

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    mature people and those over fifty

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    person who tells us something. Amon

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    “Sakîna” means, having maturit

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    indeed they will not even have any

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    partner that He will accept any pra

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    to bed, hungry. They intended to fa

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    the sight of Allâhu ta’âlâ dec

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    27- SYMPATHY FOR FÂSIQS A person w

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    head. It is learned from the words,

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    prayer called namâz [1] in jamâ

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    instigation. If there is no one in

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    associate with anyone. If one under

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    Ghazâlî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’â

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    and their relationships to each oth

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    eings causes one to believe Him and

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    instead of Abdulqâdir, or “Hasso

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    specific meanings, awareness of the

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    Derivation); Ma’ânî (Meanings,

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    a person who commits venial sins as

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    attery, extortion or theft; or perp

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    ackbiting. If it is possible to sto

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    The thirty-first âyat-i-kerîma of

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    not to be deceived by their lies, s

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    prayers. We are informed that one w

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    instead of prayers that are sunnat

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    the Qur’ân al-kerîm in a state

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    teasing Allâhu ta’âlâ.” Maki

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    medîna, or social manners. As is s

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    things will attain the consent and

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    According to what suitable nature d

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    supplementary information. Every br

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    perceived through sense organs and

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    in the grave, none of the cells or

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    some materials which are similar to

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    comprehended are stored in imaginat

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    At many places in the Qur’ân, Ha

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    or elements are divided into three

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    waste. There is no waste of space i

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    more of a beast physically. A perso

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    Lusts of the nafs have nothing In c

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    Belief in Allâhu ta’âlâ and a

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    world have likenesses in that world

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    combination of chastity, wisdom, an

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    concentrated their efforts to subor

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    11- Riqqat: Not worrying about the

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    meant to do so. A reaction even bet

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    obligatory worships which are the f

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    for the believer; he also will be a

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    Rising Day by way of an assessment

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    they abandoned Islam. The fact, how

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    2- Vice which looks like chastity:

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    knowledge in favour of attacking, a

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    men. Justice means harmony and equa

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    Confessions of A British Spy, one o

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    AN IMPORTANT NOTE: First of all, on

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    worship is absolutely incumbent on

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    Him. Everyone can follow different

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    We should not spread gossip (carry

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