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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

not have worldly

not have worldly ambitions. His busying himself with worldly occupations and businesses should not make him forget about death. (The presence of) Allâhu ta’âlâ should shame him out of committing harâms (acts which Islam prohibits).” It is forbidden for one to desire a long life with the intention of experiencing forbidden pleasures. Even though it is not forbidden to have worldly ambitions “tûl-i amal” in order to enjoy the permissible pleasures of life, still, it is not a good aspiration. One should not desire to live a long life but instead should desire a healthy and happy life. 11– USING FORBIDDEN MEANS TO OBTAIN WORLDLIES (TAMA’) The eleventh of the maladies of the heart is “tama’”. Seeking to fulfill worldly pleasures through forbidden means is called “tama’”. The worst kind of “tama’” is expecting things from human beings. Performing supererogatory prayers (nâfila) is tama’ when it causes one to have conceit and pride. Also, performing “mubâhs” is tama’ when it causes one to forget about the next world. The opposite of tama’ is called “tafwîz”, which means striving to obtain permissible and beneficial things and expecting that Allâhu ta’âlâ will let you have them. The devil tries to deceive human beings by showing hypocrisy as sincerity and tama’ as tafwîz. Allâhu ta’âlâ has appointed an angel for the heart of each human being. This angel inspires good thoughts (ilhâm) to that human being. The devil on the other hand insinuates evil suggestions (waswasa) to a person’s heart. Anyone who consumes permissible (halâl) food stuff can discriminate between good inspirations and evil suggestions. Conversely, anyone who consumes forbidden (harâm) food stuff will not be able to distinguish between the two. A person’s nafs also insinuates evil thoughts or suggestions or desires into his heart. These thoughts or desires are called “hawâ”. Inspirations and evil suggestions are not continuous but the desires (hawâ) are continuous, and they increase as time passes. Evil suggestions diminish and finally disappear as you pray and make (dhikr). The desires of the nafs could only decrease and finally disappear through strong self-fight (mujâhada). The devil is like a dog. It runs away when it is chased but comes back later from another direction. The nafs is like a tiger. Its attacks could only be stopped by moderating it. The devil which gives evil – 56 –

suggestions to human beings is called “hannâs”. If a human being does not follow an evil suggestion of the devil, the devil gives up that suggestion and starts with another one. The nafs always wishes to do destructive and evil things. In order to prevent the accomplishment of a very useful and beneficial deed, the devil will insinuate a person into doing a less useful deed. In order to coax him into a grave sin, it will infuse into him the wish to do a trivial good deed. The trivial good deed which is accomplished upon the suggestion of the devil will taste very sweet to that man and he will wish to do it in a hurry. For this reason, Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ said “Hurry is ignited by the devil. Following five things are exceptions to this rule: hurry to marry off one’s daughter, hurry to pay back one’s debt, hurry to make preparation for the burial of the deceased, hurry to feed a guest, and hurry in repentance upon committing a sin.” The following hadîth-i-sherîf which is written in the section which expounds on the atrociousness of postponing a daily prayer (termed namâz) (until its prescribed time is over), of the book Eshi’at ul-lama’ât, reads as follows: “O Alî! Do not postpone the following three things! Perform the ‘salât’ prayer in its early prescribed time! Perform the ‘salât’ prayer for a dead Muslim immediately when the corpse is ready for interment! Marry a girl or widow immediately when someone with proper qualifications proposes to marry them.” The phrase “with proper qualifications” in this hadîth-i-sherîf refers to a man who performs his (five) daily prayers (termed namâz or salât), who doesn’t commit sins and who earns his money by permissible means. The good things that are inspired by an angel must be done with the fear of Allâhu ta’âlâ without rushing, or contemplating the results. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ states as follows in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “An inspiration which comes through an angel will be compatible with Islam. The evil suggestions ‘waswasa’ which are insinuated by the devil will cause one to depart from Islam.” One should strive to do the inspired things and fight against one’s nafs and the devil lest one should indulge in the evil suggestions. A person who follows the advice of his nafs also follows the evil suggestions of the devil. Alternately, it becomes very easy to carry out the good thoughts inspired by an angel for those who do not follow the desires of their nafs. Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “The devil gives evil suggestions ‘waswasa’ to the heart. When the name of Allah is made dhikr of, (i.e. when – 57 –

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