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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

Amidst the present

Amidst the present sweeping darknesses of unbelief and the widespread blight of scantiness and affliction consequent upon a general insensibility towards Allâhu ta’âlâ, towards His Messenger ‘sall-Allâhu ta’âlâ ’alaihi wa sal-lam’, and towards Islam, a family now can barely earn a subsistence existence with all its members men and women alike working round the clock. Unless people have îmân (belief) in Allâhu ta’âlâ, adapt themselves to the Islamic religion, which He has enjoined on humanity, and festoon themselves with the beautiful moral traits epitomized on His Prophet, it is out of the question to stop this flood of aberration and cataclysm. Under the aforementioned difficult conditions, in order to pay back the “qadâ” of the unperformed “salât” prayers of the past one should daily perform “qadâ salâts” instead of the sunnats of four of the five daily prayers of salât other than the morning prayer. To do that, one should form one’s intention to perform the earliest salât that one did not perform within its prescribed time. By following this methodology, every day, one will be able to perform one day’s “qadâ salât” prayers and also one will be performing “sunnatsalât” prayers. This matter is dealt with in more detail later in the text. Also, please see the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss. Centuries ago when “fiqh” books were written, Muslims had strong belief and had fear of Allâhu ta’âlâ and fear of Hell punishment in their hearts. No one could ever imagine not performing the “salât” prayers within its prescribed times. It was unthinkable that there could be a person who would deliberately not perform the “salât” prayers. In those times, only a few “salât” prayers could be missed due to an excuse. This would be a source of distress and worry for the person who missed the “salât” prayers. The following were the reasons for missing the “salât” prayers: Not being able to wake up from sleep; forgetting; not being able to find an opportunity to perform the “salât” prayer even by sitting during a war or travel. Missing a prayer of salât for one of these reasons is not a sin. However, as soon as the reason (’udhr) ceases to exist, it becomes obligatory to perform the missed “salât” prayer immediately. It is permissible to delay the performance of the “qada” prayer of a missed “salât” prayer as much as to earn enough money to support one’s family. It is not necessary to perform the “qada” prayer omitted for acceptable reasons in place of the “muakkad-sunnat” prayers. The statement, “It is better not to perform (omitted farz prayers) – 170 –

instead of prayers that are sunnat muakkad [1] ,” in books of Fiqh, means, “farz prayers omitted for (reasons which Islam accepts and calls) ’udhr.” If a prayer of salât (which is farz) is omitted without an ’udhr, it is farz to perform it immediately. Prayers of this sort must therefore be performed instead the prayers that are sunnat. Imâm-i-Rabbânî ‘quddisa sirruh’ states in the hundred and twenty-third letter: “If supererogatory (nâfila) worship retards an act of worship which is farz, it is no longer worship; it is harmful passtime (mâ-lâ-ya’nî).”] [Great Islamic scholar Ibni Âbidîn ‘rahmatullâhi ’aleyh’ says, It is an act of sunnat to perform two rak’ats of salât when you enter a mosque. This is called ‘tahiyyatul-masjîd’. Any category of salât, e.g. farz, sunnat, or qadâ, which you perform upon entering a mosque, will also stand for tahiyyat-ul-masjîd. As you perform one of these kinds of salât, you do not have to also make your niyyat, (i.e. intend,) that you are to perform tahiyyat-ulmasjîd. Not so is the case with a salât performed (within its prescribed time and) with a double niyyat, i.e. both as the farz and as the sunnat of the time, in which case only the salât which is farz will be sahîh (valid). For, a salât which is farz (obligatory) and that which is nâfila (supererogatory) are two different categories of namâz (salât). Since any sort of salât performed (upon entering a mosque) stands also for tahiyyat-ul-masjîd, the salât called tahiyyat-ul-masjîd takes on the nature of the salât performed in its place. Any salât performed will also stand for another in the same category without an additional niyyat. However, an additional niyyat is required for the generation of thawâb (reward in the Hereafter), for an act of worship performed without a niyyat will not be given any thawâb.” ‘Salât which is sunnat’ means ‘one which is performed in addition to the salât which is farz’. Because a salât of qadâ performed before or after the salât which is farz fits in with the definition of a ‘salât which is sunnat’, salâts of qadâ and those which are sunnat fall into the same category. According to hadrat Ibni Âbidîn, when a salât of qadâ is performed the (time’s) sunnat also will have been [1] Prayers of salât which our blessed Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sallam’ performed in addition to each of the obligatory (farz) five daily prayers, are termed ‘sunnat’. Islamic scholars categorize the sunnats in two groups: ‘sunnat muakkad’, which means, ‘sunnat which is emphatic and close to being farz (obligatory); and ‘sunnat ghyr-imuakkad’ which means ‘sunnat which is not emphatic’. – 171 –

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