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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

elieve after observing

elieve after observing and understanding all of these must be either an abnormal, retrogressive, ignorant and stubborn idiot pursuing his sensuous desires, or a person enslaved by his nafs, or a sadistic tyrant obtaining pleasure from tormenting other people. If one studies life stories of disbelievers, it becomes clear that they belong to one of these categories.] Rasûlullah ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wa sal-lam’ states in a hadîth-isherîf: “Have belief in Allâhu ta’âlâ by meditating on the order among the created beings.” It will solidify a person’s belief (îmân) to study astronomy and thereby to discern the systematic order in the movements of the earth, the moon, the sun and all the other heavenly bodies, in their rotations and revolutions, and in the delicate calculations in their distances from one another. There are multifarious benefits and uses in the creation of mountains, metals, rivers, seas, animals, vegetation, and even microbes. None of them were created for a useless purpose. Clouds, rain, lightening, thunderbolt, underground waters, energy materials and air, in short, all created beings perform certain functions and services. Mankind, so far, has been able to understand very little about these innumerable number of services rendered by these innumerable beings. Is it ever possible for mind, which is not capable of understanding the creatures, to comprehend the Creator? Islamic scholars who discerned His greatness and Attributes were bewildered and stated that they realized that it is not possible to understand Him. One of the Believers of Mûsâ (Moses) ‘alaihis-salâm’ prayed for thirty years. The shadow of an overhanging cloud was protecting him against the sun. One day the cloud did not show up, so that he had to stay under the sun. When he asked his mother what the reason could be, she said that he probably committed a sin. When he said that he had not committed any sins, his mother inquired, “Didn’t you look at the skies, or at flowers? When you saw them, didn’t you think of the greatness of the Creator?” “I did look at them,” he replied, “but I was remiss in the business of pondering.” There upon she said, “Is there any other sin bigger than this? Make tawba right away.” A sensible person should not forget about the duty of pondering. Is there anyone who has any guaranty that he will not die tomorrow? Allâhu ta’âlâ did not create anything without any use. The uses which men have so far been able to discern are by far more numerous than those which they have not. Pondering can be done in four ways, according to (Islamic) scholars. Pondering about the beautiful arts of Allâhu ta’âlâ which manifest on human – 150 –

eings causes one to believe Him and love Him. Pondering about the rewards promised by Him for the worships causes one to perform those worships. Pondering about the punishments informed by Him causes one to be afraid of Him and thereby inhibits one from wronging others. Pondering about one’s having enslaved oneself to one’s nafs and committing sins and living in a state of heedlessness regardless of all the blessings bestowed by Him causes one to have shame towards Allâhu ta’âlâ. Allâhu ta’âlâ loves those who observe the terrestrial and celestial creatures and take lessons from them. It is stated as follows in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “No other act of worship is so valuable as meditation.” And another hadîth-i-sherîf reads: “A momentary meditation is more useful than sixty years’ worship.” The book Kimyâ-i-sa’âdat, in Persian, by Imâm Ghazâlî ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ contains a lengthy discourse on tafakkur (meditation, pondering). 34– MALEDICTION OVER MUSLIMS Two hadîth-i-sherîfs read as follows: “Do not pronounce maledictions over yourselves or over your offspring. Acquiesce in what Allâhu ta’âlâ foreordained. Pray so that He will increase His blessings.” “Maledictions pronounced over you by your parents or by the oppressed over their oppressor will not be rejected (by Allâhu ta’âlâ).” A person who prays that another Muslim should become a disbeliever becomes a disbeliever himself. Desiring that an oppressing person should die as a disbeliever so that he may suffer eternal punishment, would not cause disbelief. The Qur’ân al-kerîm informs us that Mûsâ (Moses) ‘alaihis-salâm’ made a similar malediction. Imâm a’zâm Abû Hanîfa ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ stated that it would cause a state of disbelief to wish that someone else should become a disbeliever. It is forbidden (harâm) to pronounce a malediction over anyone, with the exception of one’s oppressor. It is permissible to pronounce a malediction over one’s oppressor with an earnestness and vehemence equivalent to the degree of the injustice perpetrated. Anything permissible should (only) countervail the ’udhr (, i.e. the reason,) which makes it (canonically) permissible (, i.e. jâiz). If you are patient enough not to pronounce a malediction over someone who has wronged you, then so much the better; and forgiving is the best. It is not permissible to say “May Allâhu ta’âlâ give you a long life” to any – 151 –

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