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Ethics of Islam

Ethics of Islam is taken from the book Berîka by Muhammad Hâdimi. Immorality and ways to get rid of it; 40 depravities and cures to them; usefulness of ethics; what is a soul; strengths of a soul; Personalities emanating from wisdom, courage, chastity and justice are extensively explained.

from distress are called

from distress are called “ihtiyâj”. The things that are beyond the “ihtiyâj,” e.g., things used for enjoyment or pleasure or for the protection of one’s honor and value are called ornament (zînat). Using ornaments for ostentation, making a show or being superior to others is called boasting (tafâhur). It is obligatory to work for obtaining the necessary amounts to meet the “darûrat,” and “nafaqa.” It is sunnat to work for obtaining the things that are in excess of “nafaqa” but still necessary, e.g., obtaining money to pay for the medicine or doctor fees. It is permissible to obtain ornaments (zînat). Boasting is a grave sin.] 8– Dignity (waqar): It is to act with gravity, calmness and not to act with rashness while trying to obtain necessities (ihtiyâj) and other valuables. It means dignified behaviour. It does not mean to act so slowly as to miss opportunities or to act in such a way that others will seize one’s benefits or opportunities. 9– Piety (wara’): It is to abstain from committing prohibited actions as well as abstaining from things that are doubtful, i.e. things that could be harâm. It is also doing good deeds and other actions which are useful to others. It is to avoid inadequate and negligent attitude. 10– Orderliness (intizam): It is to do one’s work in an order or discipline or method. 11– Freedom (hurriyyat): It is to earn money by permissible means and to spend for good causes. It is to observe others’ rights. Freedom does not mean to do whatever one wishes or wants. 12– Munificence (sekhâwat): It is to derive pleasure from spending money for good causes. It is to spend lovingly for the causes which Islam dictates. Munificence means to be generous. It is one of the best virtues, and is commended in âyat-i-kerîmas and hadîth-i-sherîfs. Munificence gives birth to many virtues. Eight of them are widely known. 1– Generosity (karam): It is to enjoy doing things that are useful to others and extricating others from financial straits. 2– Îsâr, which means abnegation, i.e. giving others things which you want for yourself. It requires patience and therefore is one of the most valued of the virtues. It is praised in âyat-ikerîmas. 3– Forgiveness (’afw): Not to exact revenge on your adversary or on someone who has harmed you, although you could if you – 214 –

meant to do so. A reaction even better than forgiveness would be kindness in return for malice. Couplet: Against malevolence revenge is quite easy. Kindness for rancour is altruistic and manly! 4– Generosity (muruwwat): It is to be fond of helping others and giving things to those who are in need. 5– Loyalty (wafâ): To help friends and acquaintances with their livelihood. 6– Charity (muwâsât): Sharing one’s possessions with friends and acquaintances. Getting along well with them. 7– Extreme generosity (samâhat): It is to give lovingly things that are not necessary (wâjib) to give. 8– Forgiveness (musâmaha): Abdicating your rights so that others may benefit from them, although you do not have to do so, and overlooking others’ faults. JUSTICE (’ADÂLAT) GIVES BIRTH TO TWELVE HABITS 1– Sadâqat (trueness): It is to love one’s friends, to desire their happiness and comfort, to try to protect them from danger, and to try to make them happy. 2– Amity (ulfat): It is the harmony and solidarity among the members of a group with respect to their belief and worldly affairs and thoughts. 3– Faithfulness (wafâ): Getting along with others and helping each other. Another meaning of “wafâ” is keeping one’s promise and respecting others’ rights. 4– Compassion (shafqat): Concern and worrying for others’ problems. Working and struggling in order to save them from their problems. 5– Care of kin (sila ar-rahm): It is to watch over one’s relatives and close friends and to visit them and assist them. It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “I was sent to extirpate idolatry and to help my relatives.” 6– Requital (mukâfât): It is to return goodness with goodness. 7– Good-fellowship (husn al-shirkat): Obedience to social – 215 –

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