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Informe Técnico de Consultoría ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES Y ...

Informe Técnico de Consultoría ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES Y ...

AUTOR (ES):Joskow,

AUTOR (ES):Joskow, PaulTITULOVertical IntegrationAÑO 2005REFERENCIAHandbook of New Institutional Economics, KluwerBIBLIOGRAFICAIDIOMAInglésPALABRAS CLAVESRESUMENDIRECCIÓN DE ACCESOELECTRÓNICOUnderstanding the factors that determine which types oftransactions are mediated throughmarkets and which within hierarchical organizations calledfirms has been an important subject of theoretical andempirical work in microeconomics generally and central towork in New Institutional Economics (NIE) in particular forat least the last 25 years. This essay reviews research thatexamines the choice between governance of verticalrelationships involving suppliers of intermediate goods andservices (“upstream”) and the purchasers of those goods andservices (“downstream”) through some form of market-basedcontractual arrangement versus governance within anorganization through vertical integration. My primaryemphasis is on the transaction cost economics (TCE)framework for understanding the choice of governancearrangements, though I will briefly discuss several othertheories of vertical integration as well. The essay proceeds inthe following way. First, I discuss the general comparativegovernance framework that is a basic feature of transactioncost economics (TCE) analysis and within which theoreticaland empirical analysis of vertical integration associated withthe NIE has proceeded. Next, I discuss traditional“neoclassical” theories of vertical integration that rely onmarket imperfections associated with market power, freeriding, uncertainty, and economies of scale as explanationsfor vertical integration. I then proceed to discuss theories ofvertical integration from a TCE perspective, focusing on therole of incomplete contracts and relationship specificinvestment. This section includes by a brief discussion of the“property rights” (PR) approach to vertical integration,emphasizing the similarities and differences between theTCE and PR frameworks. Finally, I provide a briefdiscussion of the extensive empirical literature on verticalintegration that has been stimulated by this theoreticalresearch, focusing on key methodological issues (PeterKlein’s chapter in this volume reviews empirical studies ofthe “make of buy” decisión in more detail).A-39

AUTOR (ES):Kerr, Suzi; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, JimTITULOEvaluating The New Zealand Individual Transferable QuotaMarket For Fisheries ManagementAÑO 2003REFERENCIAMotu Economic and Public Policy Research Trust. WorkingBIBLIOGRAFICA Paper # 2003-02IDIOMAInglés.PALABRAS CLAVESRESUMENDIRECCIÓN DE ACCESOELECTRÓNICOThe New Zealand ITQ system is a dynamic institution thathas had many refinements since its inception more than 15years ago. Nonetheless, the basic tenets of the system -setting a total allowable catch and leaving the market todetermine the most profitable allocation of fishing effort -have remained intact.This paper assesses the New Zealand system to identifyareas of success and/or possible improvement or expansionwithin it. The reasons for doing so are to highlight beneficialfeatures and to identify features of the New Zealand ITQsystem that are relevant to other potential tradable permitmarkets.Beneficial features include simple standardized rules forquota definition and trading across species and areas; veryfew restrictions on quota trading and holding; relativestability in the rules over time; and low levels of governmentinvolvement in the trading process.We find evidence that supports the assertion that fishersbehave in a reasonably rational fashion and that the marketsare relatively efficient. We do not find major changes inparticipation in these fisheries as a result of the system. Wefind evidence that suggests that the ITQ system is improvingthe profitability of fisheries in New Zealand. In general theevidence thus far suggests that the market is operating in areasonably efficient manner and is providing significanteconomic gains.These factors suggest that New Zealand would want to havenon-economic justifications for any significant changes tothe system.A-40

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