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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

188 | PRACTITIONERS

188 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6One consequence of this is that, where the Court has ordered interimmeasures (see, Annex 2) to prevent a deportation pending full considerationof the case by the Court, and deportation proceedings are thereforesuspended, detention may, in certain circumstances, no longer be justified.694 The European Court has held that, as a general principle, “the factthat expulsion proceedings are provisionally suspended as a result of theapplication of an interim measure does not in itself render the detentionof the person concerned unlawful, provided that the authorities still envisageexpulsion at a later stage, so that ‘action is being taken’ althoughthe proceedings are suspended, and on condition that that the detentionmust not be unreasonably prolonged.” 695 However, this does not suspendconsideration of the suitability of the detention measures in view of deportation.In the case of Keshmiri v. Turkey (No. 2), the Court found thedetention unreasonably prolongued and, therefore, in breach of Article 5.1ECHR, because it “continued for many months after the interim measurewas applied and during that time no steps were taken to find alternativesolutions”, 696 including the possibility of sending the returnee to a differentcountry than his country of origin, where the principle of non-refoulementdid not allow for his transfer. However, the Court has also stressed that“an interim measure [. . .] preventing a person’s extradition or deportationdoes not require or form a basis for the person’s detention pending a decisionon his or her extradition or deportation.” 697A further requirement is that detention must be genuinely for the purposesof expulsion. The European Court of Human Rights has held thatwhere the real purpose of the detention is transfer for prosecution andtrial in another State, then the detention will amount to a “disguised extradition”and will be arbitrary and contrary to Article 5.1(f) as well as tothe right to security of the person protected by Article 5.1. 698 The samereasoning applies when the detention is ordered solely for reasons ofnational security even when deportation is not possible. 6996. Particular considerations in the detention of certaingroupsDetention of persons rendered vulnerable by their age, state of healthor past experiences may, depending on the individual circumstancesof the case, amount to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. This694 Abdolkhani and Karimnia v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 627, para. 134.695 Keshmiri v. Turkey (No. 2), ECtHR, Application No. 22426/10, Judgment of 17 January 2012,para. 34.696 Ibid., para. 34.697 Molotchko v. Ukraine, ECtHR, Application No. 12275/10, Judgment of 26 April 2012, para. 174.698 Bozano v. France, ECtHR, Application No. 9990/82, Judgment of 18 December 1986, para. 60.699 M.S. v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 50012/08, Judgment of 31 January 2012,paras. 155–156.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 189principle can be particularly significant in relation to detention of asylumseekers, who may have suffered torture or ill-treatment or othertraumatic experiences, sometimes with physical or mental health implications.In regard to all detained persons, particular concerns arisein relation to survivors of torture or trafficking; children and elderlypersons; or persons suffering from serious illness or disability. For example,in Farbtuhs v. Latvia, 700 the European Court held that detentionof a 79 year old disabled man violated Article 3 ECHR.The UNHCR Guidelines on Detention (Guideline 9) recommend that especiallyactive consideration should be given to alternatives to detention,for persons for whom detention is likely to have a particularly seriouseffect on psychological well-being. Such persons may include unaccompaniedelderly persons, survivors of torture or other trauma, and personswith a mental or physical disability. The UNHCR Guidelines recommendthat such persons only be detained following medical certificationthat detention will not adversely affect their health or well-being. 701Where such persons are detained, then in order to ensure compliancewith freedom from cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, particularcare will need to be taken in relation to conditions of detention, provisionof healthcare, etc (considered further below in Section 2).In C. v. Australia, 702 the Human Rights Committee found a violationof Article 9.1 on the basis that “the State Party has not demonstratedthat, in the light of the author’s particular circumstances [a psychiatricillness], there were not less invasive means of achieving the same ends,that is to say, compliance with the State Party’s immigration policies”.The European Court of Human Rights has, in practice, begun to temperits previously inflexible approach to alternatives to detention (see,above, section II.5.b.), with regard to migrants in situations of vulnerability.For instance, the Court has ruled that the best interest of thechild (Article 3 CRC) and the provisions of the Convention on the Rightsof the Child on detention (Article 37 CRC) require that State authoritiesconsider any alternatives to detention before resorting to this measurein order to satisfy its lawfulness under Article 5.1(f) ECHR. 703 This approachalso applies when children are accompanied by their family. InPopov v. France, the European Court ruled that, “in spite of the fact thatthey were accompanied by their parents, and even though the deten-700 Farbthus v. Latvia, ECtHR, Application No. 4672/02, Judgment of 2 December 2004.701 UNHCR Guidelines on Detention, op. cit., fn. 633, Guideline 9: “Because of the serious consequencesof detention, initial and periodic assessments of detainees’ physical and mentalstate are required, carried out by qualified medical practitioners. Appropriate treatmentneeds to be provided to such persons, and medical reports presented at periodic reviews oftheir detention”.702 C. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 350.703 Rahimi v. Greece, ECtHR, Application No. 8687/08, Judgment of 5 April 2011, paras. 108–109.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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