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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

224 | PRACTITIONERS

224 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Where detention may be for a long period, procedural guaranteesshould be close to those for criminal procedures. 877• The review must be prompt. What is a reasonable time for judicialreview of detention to take place will depend on the circumstances.The Human Rights Committee found in Mansour Ahaniv. Canada that a delay of nine and a half months to determinelawfulness of detention subject to a security certificate violatedArticle 9.4 ICCPR. 878 However, in the same case a delay of 120days before a later detention pending deportation could be challengedwas permissible. In ZNS v. Turkey, 879 the European Courtof Human Rights held that, where it took two months and ten daysfor the courts to review detention, in a case that was not complex,the right to speedy review of detention was violated. In Skakurovv. Russia, the Court held that delays of thirteen and thirty-fourdays to examine appeals against detention orders in non-complexcases were in breach of Article 5.4 ECHR. 880 In Embenyeli v.Russia, 881 where it took five months to process a review of detention,there had also been a violation of Article 5.4.b) Effective judicial review in national security casesSpecial procedures for judicial review of detention in cases involving nationalsecurity or counter-terrorism concerns, raise particular issues inregard to Article 9.4 ICCPR and equivalent protections, where they relyon the use of “closed” evidence not available to the detainee or his orher representatives. Detention on the basis of national security certificatesin Canada, as well as counter-terrorism administrative detentionsin the UK, illustrate these difficulties. In A. v. UK, the European Courtof Human Rights found that the system of review of administrative detentionof persons subject to immigration control and suspected of terrorism,which relied on special advocates to scrutinise closed evidenceand represent the interests of the detainee in regard to the allegationsit raised, without the detainee being aware of them, did not providesufficient fair procedures to satisfy Article 5.4. The Court held that thedetainee had to be provided with sufficient information to enable himto give instructions to the special advocate. Where the open materialconsisted only of general assertions, and the decision on detention was877 De Wilde, Ooms and Versyp v. Belgium, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 855, para. 79; A. and Othersv. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 691, para. 217: “in view of the dramatic impact ofthe lengthy—and what appeared at that time to be indefinite—deprivation of liberty on theapplicants’ fundamental rights, Article 5 para. 4 must import substantially the same fair trialguarantees as Article 6 para. 1 in its criminal aspect”.878 Ahani v. Canada, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 503.879 Z.N.S. v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 756, paras. 61–62.880 Shakurov v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 55822/10, Judgment of 5 June 2012, para. 187.881 Eminbeyli v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 662, para. 10.5.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 225based mainly on the closed material, Article 5.4 would be violated. InMansour Ahani v. Canada, 882 the Human Rights Committee held that ahearing on a security certificate which formed the basis for the detentionof a non-national pending deportation was sufficient to comply withdue process under Article 14 ICCPR. The Committee based its decisionon the fact that the non-national had been provided by the Court witha redacted summary of the allegations against him, and that the Courthad sought to ensure that despite the national security constraints inthe case, the detainee could respond to the case against him, make hisown case and cross-examine witnesses.4. Reparation for unlawful detentionThe UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparationfor victims of gross violations of international human rights lawand serious violations of international humanitarian law (the Principles)affirm that States have an obligation to provide available, adequate,effective, prompt and appropriate remedies to victims of violations ofinternational human rights law and international humanitarian law, includingreparation. 883In accordance with this general principle, persons who are found by domesticor international courts or other appropriate authorities to havebeen wrongly detained have a right to reparation, in particular compensation,for their wrongful detention (Article 5.5 ECHR; Article 9.5 ICCPR,Article 14.7 ArCHR). Under the ICCPR this right arises whenever thereis “unlawful” detention, i.e. detention which is either in violation of domesticlaw, or in violation of the Covenant. Under the ECHR, it arisesonly where there is detention in contravention of the Convention itself(although in practice this will include cases where the detention did nothave an adequate basis in domestic law). 884 The award of compensationmust be legally binding and enforceable: 885 ex gratia payments will notbe sufficient.882 Ahani v. Canada, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 503, para. 10.5.883 Articles 2 and 3 of the UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation.884 Nowak, CCPR Commentary, op. cit., fn. 730, pp. 180–182.885 Brogan and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Plenary, Applications Nos. 1209/84, 11234/84,11266/84, 11386/85, Judgment of 29 November 1988, para. 67.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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