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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

232 | PRACTITIONERS

232 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6law and to national implementation of international obligations. Theeffectiveness will also depend on the legal system of each country andto what extent ESC rights have been incorporated into domestic law.Nevertheless, even where national legal systems do not provide directlyfor remedies for ESC rights, their invocation may be a useful tool for theinterpretation of national laws concerning the provision of benefits orsocial services for migrants, and may also help to support an eventualcommunication against a violation submitted to an international humanrights mechanism.The CESCR has stressed that, “[w]hile the general approach of eachlegal system needs to be taken into account, there is no Covenant rightwhich could not, in the great majority of systems, be considered to possessat least some significant justiciable dimensions”. 914 The Committeeaccepts the possibility of resorting to administrative remedies for somerights. These must in any case be “accessible, affordable, timely andeffective”. 915 However, the Committee stressed that there are some obligations“in relation to which the provision of some form of judicialremedy would seem indispensable in order to satisfy the requirementsof the Covenant.” 916 It stressed that judicial review and the judiciary’sapplication of domestic law must be undertaken in consonance with theICESCR, otherwise “[n]eglect by the courts of this responsibility is incompatiblewith the principle of the rule of law”. 917 The right of access tocourts for non-citizens without any discriminatory implementation, denialor omission of ESC rights has been also highlighted by the CERD. 918As noted in Section I.4, the obligation of non-discrimination is of immediateeffect. 919 In addition, the CESCR has found of immediate effectthe principle of gender equality (Article 3 ICESCR), the right to fairwages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinctionof any kind (Article 7.1 ICESCR), freedom of association and tradeunions rights (Article 8 ICESCR), essential rights relating to child labour(Article 10.3 ICESCR), the right to be free from hunger and to accessbasic shelter (article 11 ICESCR), the right to free and compulsory primaryeducation (Article 13.2(a) ICESCR), the right of parents to havetheir children educated in respect of their religious and moral convictions(Article 13.3 ICESCR), the liberty of individuals and bodies to establisheducational institutions (Article 13.4 ICESCR), and the freedom914 General Comment No. 9, The domestic application of the Covenant, CESCR, UN Doc.E/C.12/1998/24, 3 December 1998, para. 10.915 Ibid., para. 9.916 Ibid., para. 9917 Ibid., paras. 14 and 15.918 See, CERD, General Recommendation No. 30, op. cit., fn. 18, para. 29.919 CESCR, General Comment No. 3, op. cit., fn. 147, paras. 1 and 5. See, Articles 22 and 35,Limburg Principles, op. cit., fn. 888.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 233of scientific research and creative activity (Article 15.3) ICESCR). TheCESCR clearly rejected any inference that these elements of rights andobligations might be non-self-executing. 920 The list is illustrative andnon-exhaustive. 921 Furthermore, it must be recalled that, even in thecase of obligations subject to progressive realisation, national courtscan review compliance with ESC rights based on principles of reasonableness,proportionality and necessity.Box 14. ESC Rights in regional courtsESC rights are adjudicated by a number of international courtsand tribunals. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights andthe African Commission supervise and rule on the implementationof the ESC rights included in their main instruments. 922The European Court has a more limited role due to the scarcepresence of the ESC rights in the European Convention, butit includes protection for some rights also protected as ESCrights including the right to education (Article 2 of Protocol 1)and other ECHR rights allow it to adjudicate on some aspectsof ESC rights, including the right to respect for private andfamily life and to respect for the home (Article 8 ECHR) andthe right to property (Article 1 Protocol 1). The EuropeanCourt can also find violations of ESC rights under the generalprohibition of discrimination set out in Article 1 of Protocol 12ECHR (for those States Parties that have ratified the Protocol),which prohibits discrimination in regard to “any right set forthby law”. 923 The European Committee of Social Rights can receivecollective complaints, and, despite the restrictive scopeof the European Social Charter, its jurisprudence is openingup to adjudicating on at least a minimum common core ofESC rights for all migrants, regardless of their status. Finally,920 Ibid., para. 5.921 See, CESCR, General Comment No. 9, op. cit., fn. 914, para. 10.922 See, SERAC and the CESR v. Nigeria, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 29, para. 68. In Socio-EconomicRights Accountability Project (SERAP) v. Nigeria, ACommHPR, CommunicationNo. 300/2005, 5 th Extraordinary Session, 21–29 July 2008, para. 65, the Court said that the“African Charter [...] constitutes a normative base for socio-economic rights claims whichallow any claim brought under the Charter to be litigated before national courts.”923 In particular, the Explanatory Report to Protocol 12 to the Convention for the Protectionof Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ETS No. 177, clarifies that the prohibitionof discrimination refers to “the enjoyment of any right specifically granted to an individualunder national law; [.. .] the enjoyment of a right which may be inferred from a clear obligationof a public authority under national law, that is, where a public authority is under anobligation under national law to behave in a particular manner; [unjustified discrimination]by a public authority in the exercise of discretionary power (for example, granting certainsubsidies); [or] by any other act or omission by a public authority (for example, the behaviourof law enforcement officers when controlling a riot).”

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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